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Identification of the pattern of appearance and development of thermal windows in the skin of juvenile Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in a controlled environment

Investigation published in Marine Mammal Science

January 1st, 2013

Marine mammals maintain thermal equilibrium not only by relying on a layer of insulation (e.g., fur or blubber) and a body shape with a relatively low surface-to-volume ratio, but also by adjusting blood flow to the skin and appendages (Bryden and Molyneux 1978, Molyneux and Bryden 1978, Hokkanen 1990, Dehnhardt et al. 1998, Boyd 2000). These areas of adjustable blood flow, known as thermal windows, act as heat-dissipaters or heat-conservers depending on the needs of the animal (Tattersall et al. 2009). For example, cetaceans have circulatory plexuses to enable counter-current heat transfer in the dorsal fin, the pectoral flippers and the flukes (Scholander and Schevill 1955). Among otariids, fur seals appear to use their flippers for removing heat excess while swimming (Bryden and Molyneux 1978), whereas Willis et al. (2005) demonstrated higher heat flux values around the hips and shoulders than in flippers of swimming and stationary Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Phocids, in contrast, appear to use the extremities and the trunk for heat dissipation (Molyneux and Bryden 1978). In these species these areas of increased heat exchange are most often the result of arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs), which control the passage of blood to the surface of the body to cool it (Krumbiegel 1933, Øritsland 1968, Bryden and Molyneux 1978, Molyneux and Bryden 1978, Mauck et al. 2003). While a great deal of research on thermal windows has been done in these two families of pinnipeds, no research has been published on the third family, the Odobenidae (walruses). The aim of this study was to identify whether the pattern in which thermal windows are presented and develop across the walruses’ body surface is similar to phocid seals, mainly over the trunk, or concentrated near the extremities, as in otariids.




Rodriguez-Prieto V., Rubio-Garcia A., Melero M., Garcia-Parraga D. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..




See this article
Identification of the pattern of appearance and development of thermal windows in the skin of juvenile Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in a controlled environment



Participants:

Universidad ComplutenseServicio de Inmunología Viral y Medicina Preventiva (SUAT). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria Veterinaria (VISAVET). Universidad Complutense (UCM).

Universidad ComplutenseDepartamento de Sanidad Animal. Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense (UCM).

Generalitat ValencianaOceanogràfic. Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias. Generalitat Valenciana.







FACTOR YEAR Q
1.820 2013

NLMID: 9881604

ISSN: 0824-0469



TITLE: Identification of the pattern of appearance and development of thermal windows in the skin of juvenile Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in a controlled environment


JOURNAL: Mar. Mamm. Sci.


NUMERACIÓN: 29(1):167-176


AÑO: 2013


PUBLISHER: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, inc


AUTHORS: Rodriguez-Prieto V., Rubio-Garcia A., Melero M., Garcia-Parraga D. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..


VISAVET PARTICIPANTS


3rd
Mar Melero Asensio
Last
José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno Rodríguez

DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00533.x


CITE THIS PUBLICATION:

Rodriguez-Prieto V., Rubio-Garcia A., Melero M., Garcia-Parraga D. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. Identification of the pattern of appearance and development of thermal windows in the skin of juvenile Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in a controlled environment. Marine Mammal Science. 29(1):167-176. 2013. ISSN: 0824-0469. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00533.x


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