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The role of wildlife in bluetongue virus maintenance in Europe: Lessons learned after the natural infection in Spain

Investigation article published in Virus Research

March 1st, 2014

Bluetongue (BT) is a re-emergent vector-borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of the genus Orbivirus. A complex multi-host, multi-vector and multi-pathogen (26 serotypes) transmission and maintenance network has recently emerged in Europe, and wild ruminants are regarded as an important node in this network. This review analyses the reservoir role of wild ruminants in Europe, identifying gaps in knowledge and proposing actions. Wild ruminant species are indicators of BTV circulation. Excepting the mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), European wild ungulates do not develop clinical disease. Diagnostic techniques used in wildlife do not differ from those used in domestic ruminants provided they are validated. Demographic, behavioural and physiological traits of wild hosts modulate their relationship with BTV vectors and with the virus itself. While BTV has been eradicated from central and northern Europe, it is still circulating in the Mediterranean Basin. We propose that currently two BTV cycles coexist in certain regions of the Mediterranean Basin, a wild one largely driven by deer of the subfamily Cervinae and a domestic one. These are probably linked through shared Culicoides vectors of several species. We suggest that wildlife might be contributing to this situation through vector maintenance and virus maintenance. Additionally, differences in temperature and other environmental factors add complexity to the Mediterranean habitats as compared to central and northern European ones. Intervention options in wildlife populations are limited. There is a need to know the role of wildlife in maintaining Culicoides populations, and to know which Culicoides species mediate the wildlife-livestock-BTV transmission events. There is also a clear need to study more in depth the links between Cervinae deer densities, environmental factors and BTV maintenance. Regarding disease control, we suggest that research efforts should be focused on wildlife population and wildlife disease monitoring




Ruiz-Fons F., Sanchez-Matamoros A., Gortazar C. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..




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The role of wildlife in bluetongue virus maintenance in Europe: Lessons learned after the natural infection in Spain

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The role of wildlife in bluetongue virus maintenance in Europe: Lessons learned after the natural infection in Spain


Participants:

Universidad ComplutenseServicio de Inmunología Viral y Medicina Preventiva (SUAT). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria Veterinaria (VISAVET). Universidad Complutense (UCM).

Universidad ComplutenseDepartamento de Sanidad Animal. Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense (UCM).

Gobierno de Castilla-La ManchaSanidad y Biotecnología (SaBio). Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (IREC). Universidad de Castilla La Mancha (UCLM). Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC). Gobierno de Castilla-La Mancha (JCCM).







FACTOR YEAR Q
2.324 2014

NLMID: 8410979

PMID: 24394295

ISSN: 0168-1702



TITLE: The role of wildlife in bluetongue virus maintenance in Europe: Lessons learned after the natural infection in Spain


JOURNAL: Virus Res


NUMERACIÓN: 182:50-8


AÑO: 2014


PUBLISHER: Elsevier Science


AUTHORS: Ruiz-Fons F., Sanchez-Matamoros A., Gortazar C. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..


VISAVET PARTICIPANTS


José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno Rodríguez

DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.virusres.2013.12.031


CITE THIS PUBLICATION:

Ruiz-Fons F., Sanchez-Matamoros A., Gortazar C. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. The role of wildlife in bluetongue virus maintenance in Europe: Lessons learned after the natural infection in Spain. Virus Research. 182:50-8. 2014. (A). ISSN: 0168-1702. DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2013.12.031


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