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Genetic flux in antimicrobial resistance

Ponencia en AHVLA International Conference 2011

13 de septiembre de 2011

Gonzalez-Zorn B.

In the past half century, the misuse of antimicrobials by man has been a steady pressure on bacteria. This pressure has resulted in stress for bacteria, in response, have evolved mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics. A major negative consequences of this process is the transmission of resistance mechanisms among different
populations of bacteria, including pathogenic bacteria. Currently, the spread of antibiotic resistance is increasing and is a major concern in the field of public health and animal health. The discovery of antibiotics represented one of the greatest revolutions in modern medicine. Penicillin, which belongs to the family of beta-lactam antibiotics, was the first antibiotic discovered (Fleming, 1928) and appeared in the following decades new families (aminoglycosides, 1944, tetracyclines, 1948; chloramphenicol, 1949; quinolones, 1962; etc.).. These compounds have radically changed the way we deal with infectious diseases and currently are, along with vaccination, our main arsenal of defense against them. However, bacteria have been able to develop escape mechanisms of action of antimicrobials. Both bacteria and fungi produce antibiotics for millions of years naturally, are primarily used to communicate among themselves and compete with other microorganisms. Bacteria antibiotics manufacturers have, necessarily, mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobial compounds that produce, otherwise inhibit its growth. This means that the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance emerged in parallel to their own antibiotics. At the same time, bacteria have a great capacity to adapt because of their genetic plasticity and their huge populations, which has favoured the emergence of new mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics over the years. The current World-situation on Antimicrobial Resistance presents a dark scenario. In the past years, we have realised that, although many important measures have been undertaken by most governments world-wide, Antimicrobial resistance is today one of the six most important Health problems, as stated by the WHO. Emerging new antimicobial resistance determinants flow through countries in such a speed, that detection seems to be always a step behind spread of novel resistance genes. Examples are well-known, such as the 16S rRNA methyltransferases conferring high-level resistance to aminoglycosides, or the carbapenemases. We realise today, that the problem of Resistance has to be adressed from an Ecological point of view, taking into account multidiscilinary approaches to fight agains this panedmic, as well as Global measures. Travelling of humans, animals and foods, make that local or National measures do not warranty increase in Health in the respective countries, and import of life-threatening resistance genes becomes a day-to-day threat in every Nation. To overcome this, a coordinated world-wide effort has to be established, and transnational cooperation is a unevitable Milestone that we have to face, if Antimicrobial Resistance is to be delayed




Participantes:

Universidad ComplutenseServicio de Zoonosis de Transmisión Alimentaria y Resistencia a Antimicrobianos (ZTA). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria Veterinaria (VISAVET). Universidad Complutense (UCM).

Universidad ComplutenseDepartamento de Sanidad Animal. Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense (UCM).


Enlace a AHVLA International Conference 2011





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AHVLA International Conference 2011


AHVLA International Conference 2011
13-15 septiembre de 2011
Londres
Reino Unido

TÍTULO: Genetic flux in antimicrobial resistance


TIPO: Comunicación oral


AUTORES: Gonzalez-Zorn B.


PARTICIPANTES VISAVET


Bruno González Zorn

FECHA: 13 de septiembre de 2011



CITA ESTA COMUNICACIÓN:

Gonzalez-Zorn B. Genetic flux in antimicrobial resistance. AHVLA International Conference 2011, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Londres, Reino Unido, 13 de septiembre de 2011. (Comunicación oral)


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