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SCI scientific publications 2007

November 1st, 2007

Drug susceptibility of Spanish Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from animals

Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) 87(6):565-71.

     Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae are zoonotic bacteria that cause tuberculosis with several clinical manifestations. We have evaluated the susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drugs of a panel of Spanish isolates of animal origin. The analysis of the sequence of the main genes involved in resistance was performed in 41 M. bovis and five M. caprae. The katG, inhA, rpsL, embB and gyrA genes had single nucleotide polymorphisms, not previously described in other organisms of the complex. Thirty-two M. bovis and three M. caprae isolates were tested for susceptibility to isoniazid (INH), rifampin, streptomycin, ethambutol, and ofloxacin using the standard proportion method. The results revealed that the isolates were sensitive to the f… Leer más

Romero B., Aranaz A., Bezos J., Alvarez J., de Juan L., Tariq-Javed M., Mateos A., Gomez-Mampaso E. and Dominguez L..

November 1st, 2007

Flavobacterium ceti sp. nov., isolated from beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris)

International Journal Of Systematic And Evolutionary Microbiology 57(Pt 11):2604-8.

     Three isolates of a Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, isolated from the lung and liver of two beaked whales, were characterized by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. Based on cellular morphology and biochemical criteria, the isolates were tentatively assigned to the family Flavobacteriaceae, although they did not appear to correspond to any recognized species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the three new isolates shared 100% sequence similarity. The unknown bacterium was phylogenetically closely related to, but distinct from the type strains of Flavobacterium johnsoniae (93.7% sequence similarity), Flavobacterium frigidimaris (93.4%), Flavobacterium aquidurense (93.4%), Flavobacter… Leer más

Vela AI., Fernandez A., Sanchez-Porro C., Sierra E., Mendez M., Arbelo M., Ventosa A., Dominguez L. and Fernandez-Garayzabal JF..

October 10th, 2007

Advances in immunology and vaccine discovery report of the United States-European Commission workshop

Vaccine 31(2-3):101-20.

     As the 21st century unfolds, infectious diseases remain one of the most significant threats to our economy, our food animal production systems, animal welfare, and most importantly, the lives of people worldwide, regardless of their economic standing. The potential use of biological threat agents for terrorism or biowarfare further undermines the security of our society. Arguably, vaccines represent the single most cost-effective, medically delivered strategy for confronting these challenges. The workshop "Advances in Immunology and Vaccine Discovery" was organized to address these challenges, based on the conviction that the interface between immunology and vaccinology offers the best prospects for major breakthroughs in vaccine discovery … Leer más

Gay CG., Richie TL., Pastoret PP., Minguez-Tudela I., de Baetselier P., Gobel T., Goddeeris B., Kaiser P., Morrison I., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Anderson K., Baillie LW., Brown WC., Estes DM., Herrera E., Nara PL., Ockenhouse CF., Roth JA. and Sztein MB.

October 1st, 2007

Polymorphisms in gyrA and gyrB genes among Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis type I, II, and III isolates

Journal Of Clinical Microbiology 45(10):3439-42.

     The analysis of the gyrA and gyrB genes of a panel of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from types I, II, and III detected type-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms. Based on these results, we developed a PCR and restriction enzyme analysis to discriminate type I and III isolates. The application of this technique would be the unique strategy to characterize these strains when there is not enough bacterial growth to perform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism… Leer más

Castellanos E., Aranaz A., Romero B., de Juan L., Alvarez J., Bezos J., Rodriguez-Campos S., Stevenson K., Mateos A. and Dominguez L..

September 1st, 2007

Improvement of spoligotyping with additional spacer sequences for characterization of Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae isolates from Spain

Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) 87(5):437-45.

     Spoligotyping is a typing tool used worldwide for epidemiological studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms; however it has received little attention regarding improvement of its discriminatory power (DP). In this study, we have evaluated a spoligotyping membrane prepared with 25 novel spacer sequences selected from a previous study [van der Zanden AG, Kremer K, Schouls LM. Improvement of differentiation and interpretability of spoligotyping for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates by introduction of new spacer oligonucleotides. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:4628-39] on 308 M. bovis and 88 M. caprae Spanish isolates in comparison with the traditional spoligotyping membrane. The results obtained by combining the two membranes… Leer más

Javed MT., Aranaz A., de Juan L., Bezos J., Romero B., Alvarez J., Lozano C., Mateos A. and Dominguez L..

September 1st, 2007

Characterization of Aerococcus viridans isolates from swine clinical specimens

Journal Of Clinical Microbiology 45(9):3053-7.

     We present here the biochemical and genetic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of 58 isolates of Aerococcus viridans isolated in pure culture from different clinical specimens of normally sterile body sites of pigs. A. viridans isolates were commonly susceptible to beta-lactam antimicrobials and exhibited a great genetic heterogeneity as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing. The results indicate that A. viridans might be included in the list of possible etiological agents causing disease in pigs… Leer más

Martin V., Vela AI., Gibert M., Cebolla JA., Goyache J., Dominguez L. and Fernandez-Garayzabal JF..

July 1st, 2007

Molecular characterisation of BSR4, a novel bradyzoite-specific gene from Neospora caninum

International Journal For Parasitology 37(8-9):887-96.

     Here we present the identification and cloning of the NcBSR4 gene, the putative Neospora caninum orthologue to the Toxoplasma gondii TgBSR4 gene. To isolate NcBSR4, genome walking PCR was performed on N. caninum genomic DNA using the expressed sequence tag NcEST3c28h02.y1 sequence, which shares a 44% identity with the TgBSR4 gene, as a framework. Nucleotide sequencing of amplified DNA fragments revealed a single uninterrupted 1227 bp open reading frame that encodes a protein of 408 amino acids with 66% similarity to the TgBSR4 antigen. A putative 39-residue signal peptide was found at the NH2-terminus, followed by a hydrophilic region. At the COOH-terminus, a potential site for a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor was identified at amino a… Leer más

Risco-Castillo V., Fernandez-Garcia A., Zaballos A., Aguado-Martinez A., Hemphill A., Rodriguez-Bertos A., Alvarez-Garcia G. and Ortega-Mora LM.

June 1st, 2007

Short communication. First report of black queen-cell virus detection in honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Spain

Spanish Journal Of Agricultural Research 3:322-325.

     The black queen-cell virus (BQCV) is a RNA virus recently classified within the Family Dicistroviridae, genus Cripavirus. Although BQCV is found worldwide, it has never been previously reported in Spain in spite of the fact that this country is the main producer of honey bees (Apis mellifera) in the European Union. This study presents a clinical and laboratory description of a BQCV outbreak in honey bees within an apiary made up of 80 colonies in the province of Toledo (Spain). Mortality was associated with signs of diarrhoea, enlarged abdomen, oedema in the midgut, and distended rectum filled with a transparent liquid. The parasite Nosema apis has been reported in BQCV outbreaks. The acute clinical picture, with symptoms of diarrhoea and m… Leer más

Higes M., Esperon F. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

June 1st, 2007

Beta-lactam resistance in Haemophilus parasuis Is mediated by plasmid pB1000 bearing blaROB-1

Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy 51(6):2260-4.

     beta-Lactam resistance in Haemophilus parasuis is an emerging phenomenon that has not yet been characterized from a molecular perspective. Clinical high-level beta-lactam-resistant isolates from Spain bore a novel plasmid, pB1000, expressing a functionally active ROB-1 beta-lactamase. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was applied for the first time to H. parasuis and showed that beta-lactam resistance is due to clonal spread of a resistant strain, BB1018, bearing pB1000… Leer más

San Millan A., Escudero JA., Catalan A., Nieto S., Farelo F., Gibert M., Moreno MA., Dominguez L. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

June 1st, 2007

Aerococcus suis sp. nov., isolated from clinical specimens from swine

International Journal Of Systematic And Evolutionary Microbiology 57(Pt 6):1291-4.

     Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed for five isolates of unknown Gram-positive, catalase-negative, cocci-shaped micro-organisms obtained from clinical samples from pigs. The micro-organisms were tentatively identified as Aerococcus species on the basis of the results from cellular morphological and biochemical tests. 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the provisional identification of the isolates as members of the genus Aerococcus, but the micro-organism did not correspond to any recognized species of this genus. The nearest phylogenetic relatives of these unknown cocci isolated from pigs were Aerococcus viridans (95.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Aerococcus urinaeequi (95.8 %). The unknown bacteriu… Leer más

Vela AI., Garcia N., Latre MV., Casamayor A., Sanchez-Porro C., Briones V., Ventosa A., Dominguez L. and Fernandez-Garayzabal JF..

March 10th, 2007

Abundance and phenotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in faeces from healthy food animals after slaughter

Veterinary Microbiology 120(3-4):363-9.

     Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is an increasing phenomenon but its quantitative estimation remains controversial. The classical resistance percentage approach is not well suited to detect either emergence or low levels resistance. One option is to shift the focus from strains to hosts. This approach is applied to test for phenotypic diversity associated with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (DSESC) in faecal Escherichia coli from healthy food animals in Spain. We performed E. coli enumeration in faecal samples of broilers (82 pooled samples) and pigs (80 pooled samples) at the slaughterhouse level, using Coli-ID plates alone and supplemented with cefotaxime at two levels (1 and 8 microg/ml). Antimicrobial suscept… Leer más

Moreno MA., Teshager T., Porrero MC., Garcia M., Escudero E., Torres C. and Dominguez L..

March 1st, 2007

Risk assessment applied to Spain`s prevention strategy against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

Avian Diseases 51(1 Suppl):507-11.

     Notifiable avian influenza (NAI) had never been reported in Spain, until July 2006 when a dead Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) was found positive to the highly pathogenic H5N1 subtype as part of the active wild bird surveillance plan. The current program of the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (MAPA)`s strategic preventive plan against NAI is divided in the following parts: identification of risk areas and risk wild bird species, increased biosecurity measures, early detection of infection with surveillance intensification and development of rapid diagnostic tests, and other policies, which include continuing education and training to ensure early detection of the disease. In 2003 an active surveillance plan was… Leer más

Martinez-Aviles M., Munoz MJ., de la Torre A., Martinez B., Iglesias I. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

February 1st, 2007

First characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus suis

Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy 51(2):777-82.

     We have identified and sequenced the genes encoding the quinolone-resistance determining region (QRDR) of ParC and GyrA in fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus suis clinical isolates. Resistance is the consequence of single point mutations in the QRDRs of ParC and GyrA and is not due to clonal spread of resistant strains or horizontal gene transfer with other bacteria… Leer más

Escudero JA., San Millan A., Catalan A., de la Campa AG., Rivero E., Lopez G., Dominguez L., Moreno MA. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

January 1st, 2007

Avian tuberculosis in naturally infected captive water birds of the Ardeideae and Threskiornithidae families studied by serotyping, IS901 RFLP typing, and virulence for poultry

Veterinary Microbiology 119(2-4):366-74.

     Avian tuberculosis was detected in one flock of 38 water birds of the families Ardeideae (n = 20) and Threskiornithidae (n = 18). Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA, serotype 1, genotype IS901+ and IS1245+) was more often (p = 0.01) detected in tissue and/or faecal samples in 18 (90.0%) birds form the Ardeideae family: little egret (Egretta garzetta), buff-backed heron (Bubulcus ibis), great white egret (Egretta alba), and bittern (Botaurus stellaris) in comparison to two (11.1%) birds from the Threskiornithidae family: sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). Avian tuberculosis was not diagnosed in spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia). Tuberculous lesions were found in nine birds. MAA isolates of IS901 RFLP type F-C3 were present in all of t… Leer más

Dvorska L., Matlova L., Ayele WY., Fischer OA., Amenori T., Weston RT., Alvarez J., Beran V., Moravkova M. and Pavlik I.

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