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SCI scientific publications 2023

December 12nd, 2023

Intrapancreatic accessory spleens in African swine fever infection of wild boar (Sus scrofa)

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 10:1306320.

     Intrapancreatic accessory spleen (IPAS) is one of the most frequent congenital splenic anomalies in humans; however, studies in veterinary medicine are scarce. This study aimed to describe the macroscopic, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of 11 suspected cases of IPAS in wild boar piglets of 3–4 months old. Seven of the 11 animals were immunised with a low virulence isolate of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and subsequently challenged with a highly virulent ASFV isolate (LVI-HVI group). The remaining four animals were exclusively infected with a highly virulent isolate of ASFV (HVI group). Grossly, lesions comprised focal or multifocal reddish areas of variable shape, located on the surface of the pancreatic tail o… Leer más

Porras N., Chinchilla-Rodríguez B., Rodriguez-Bertos A., Barasona JA., Kosowska A., Vazquez-Fernandez E., Sanchez-Cordon PJ. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

November 24th, 2023

A rugged yet easily navigable fitness landscape

Science 382(6673):eadh3860.

     Fitness landscape theory predicts that rugged landscapes with multiple peaks impair Darwinian evolution, but experimental evidence is limited. In this study, we used genome editing to map the fitness of >260,000 genotypes of the key metabolic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of the antibiotic trimethoprim, which targets this enzyme. The resulting landscape is highly rugged and harbors 514 fitness peaks. However, its highest peaks are accessible to evolving populations via abundant fitness-increasing paths. Different peaks share large basins of attraction that render the outcome of adaptive evolution highly contingent on chance events. Our work shows that ruggedness need not be an obstacle to Darwinian evolution but can reduce … Leer más

Papkou A., Garcia-Pastor L., Escudero JA. and Wagner A.

November 1st, 2023

Forensic investigations of religious rituals involving poultry: a case report

Journal Of Comparative Pathology 207:91-95.

     Animal victims of human cruelty are receiving increasing attention from the press and society. Veterinary pathologists and civic authorities have a duty not only to elucidate the cause, method and manner of death but also to address the motivation behind a case. Poultry are commonly used as offering to gods in Santería rituals (ebos). Only a few cases have been reported in scientific journals, in contrast with the number of cases described in the media. Here, a hen and a cockerel (Gallus domesticus) were submitted to
the VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre for autopsy, which comprised macroscopic and histological studies and microbiological testing for Chlamydia psittaci, avian orthoavulavirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus), West Nile vi… Leer más

Vazquez-Fernandez E., Rebollada A., Chinchilla-Rodríguez B., Porras N. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

November 1st, 2023

Haemato-biochemical characterization of equine piroplasmosis asymptomatic carriers and seropositive, real-time PCR negative horses

Veterinary Parasitology 323:110046.

     Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, transmitted by tick vectors. Horses can suffer an acute, subacute, and chronic forms of the disease, with clinical signs such as poor performance, fever, pale mucosal membranes, and jaundice. The diagnosis of EP subclinical cases is complex due to the sensitivity of real-time PCR and the limited parasite load in some carriers, making it challenging to differentiate them from seropositive, PCR negative (S+PCR-) individuals. This study aimed to describe haematological and biochemical changes in asymptomatic EP carriers, EP S+PCR- horses and control horses (EP seronegative and PCR negative). It also investigated potential haemato-biochemical markers to aid in distinguis… Leer más

Dorrego-Rodriguez A., Camino E., Gago F., Buendia A., Acurio Cutschi KL., Gonzalez S., de Juan L. and Cruz F..

October 12nd, 2023

Risk Factors for Salmonella Detection in Commercial Layer Flocks in Spain

Animals 13(20):3181.

     Foodborne salmonellosis remains one of the top zoonotic diseases affecting public health worldwide, and its incidence has remained stable in the last years in the European Union (EU) triggering questions on the usefulness of currently available measures to prevent its occurrence. A main focus of Salmonella national control programs is monitoring the presence of the bacteria in animal reservoirs, especially in poultry, and for this reason, thousands of samples are collected every year in poultry farms in EU countries, but the importance of certain factors in the probability of detecting Salmonella remains poorly understood. A thorough analysis conducted on data collected in all laying hen flocks sampled in Spain in 2015–2020 revealed that ev… Leer más

Samper-Cativiela C., Prieto M., Collado S., De Frutos C., Branscum AJ., Saez-Llorente JL. and Alvarez J..

October 11st, 2023

Profile and resistance levels of 136 integron resistance genes

Npj Antimircobials And Resistance 1:13.

     Integrons have played a major role in the rise and spread of multidrug resistance in Gram-negative pathogens and are nowadays commonplace among clinical isolates. These platforms capture, stockpile, and modulate the expression of more than 170 antimicrobial resistance cassettes (ARCs) against most clinically-relevant antibiotics. Despite their importance, our knowledge on their profile and resistance levels is patchy, because data is scattered in the literature, often reported in different genetic backgrounds and sometimes extrapolated from sequence similarity alone. Here we have generated a collection of 136 ARCs against 8 antibiotic families and disinfectants. Cassettes are cloned in a vector designed to mimic the genetic environment of a… Leer más

Hipolito A., Garcia-Pastor L., Vergara-Gonzalez E., Jove T. and Escudero JA..

October 6th, 2023

New insights into the pathogenesis and transmission of Brucella pinnipedialis: systemic infection in two bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

Microbiology Spectrum e0199723.

     The emergence of Brucella infections in marine mammals is a growing concern. The present study reports two cases of systemic Brucella pinnipedialis infection detected in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) pair stranded together in the Cantabrian coast of Spain. Both animals showed systemic lesions associated with the Brucella infection, more severe in the younger dolphin, considered the likely offspring of the other individual. Real-time PCR, bacterial culture, and whole-genome sequencing were used to detect and characterize the Brucella strains involved in both dolphins. The phylogenetic analysis performed on the Brucella genomes retrieved revealed that the species involved was B. pinnipedialis (ST25). Both animals resulted seroposit… Leer más

Vargas-Castro I., Crespo-Picazo JL., Fayos M., Jimenez-Martinez MA., Torre-Fuentes L., Alvarez J., Moura AE., Hernandez M., Buendia A., Barroso-Arevalo S., Garcia-Seco T., Perez-Sancho M., de Miguel MJ., Andres-Barranco S., Marco-Cabedo V., Penin-Villahoz G., Munoz PM., Dominguez L., Garcia-Parraga D. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

October 5th, 2023

A retrospective study of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in dogs and cats in the Community of Madrid, Spain

Frontiers In Microbiology 14:1264172.

     To date, susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in domestic animals including cats and dogs has been described. However, it is important to carry out passive surveillance of these animals to be aware of any changes in the outcomes of the disease in these species that may occur. In this study, we have performed a retrospective study in which we analyzed sera (n = 1,640) from random animals: dogs (n = 1,381) and cats (n = 259) belonging to both homes (n = 1,533) and animal protection centers (n = 107) in the Community of Madrid, Spain. Neutralizing antibodies were evaluated between November 2021 and May 2022 using a surrogate ELISA kit to determine the seroprevalence. Based on the results obtained, a few animals (both cats and dogs) presented… Leer más

Sánchez-Morales L., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Dominguez L. and Barroso-Arevalo S.

October 1st, 2023

Quantitative risk assessment of African swine fever introduction into Spain by legal import of swine products

Research In Veterinary Science 163:104990.

     African swine fever (ASF) is currently threatening the global swine industry. Its unstoppable global spread poses a serious risk to Spain, one of the world`s leading producers. Over the past years, there has been an increased global burden of ASF not only in swine but also swine products. Unfortunately, many pigs are not diagnosed before slaughter and their products are used for human consumption. These ASF-contaminated products are only a source for new ASF outbreaks when they are consumed by domestic pigs or wild boar, which may happen either by swill feeding or landfill access. This study presents a quantitative stochastic risk assessment model for the introduction of ASF into Spain via the legal import of swine products, specifically po… Leer más

Munoz-Perez C., Martinez-Lopez B., Gomez-Vazquez JP., Aguilar-Vega C., Bosch J., Ito S., Martinez-Aviles M. and Sanchez-Vizcaino F.

October 1st, 2023

Translating eco-evolutionary biology into therapy to tackle antibiotic resistance

Nature Reviews. Microbiology 21(10):671-685.

     Antibiotic resistance is currently one of the most important public health problems. The golden age of antibiotic discovery ended decades ago, and new approaches are urgently needed. Therefore, preserving the efficacy of the antibiotics currently in use and developing compounds and strategies that specifically target antibiotic-resistant pathogens is critical. The identification of robust trends of antibiotic resistance evolution and of its associated trade-offs, such as collateral sensitivity or fitness costs, is invaluable for the design of rational evolution-based, ecology-based treatment approaches. In this Review, we discuss these evolutionary trade-offs and how such knowledge can aid in informing combination or alternating antibiotic … Leer más

Sanz-García F., Gil-Gil T., Laborda P., Blanco P., Ochoa-Sanchez LE., Baquero F., Martinez JL. and Hernando-Amado S.

September 28th, 2023

What can we learn from the five-year African swine fever epidemic in Asia?

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 10:1273417.

     Today`s global swine industry is exposed to the unprecedented threat of African swine fever (ASF). Asia, the site of the most recent epidemics, could serve as a huge viral reservoir for the rest of the world given the severity of the damage, the huge swine industry, and the high volume of trade with other countries around the world. As the majority of ASF notifications in Asia today originate from pig farms, the movement of live pigs and associated pork products are considered critical control points for disease management. Particularly, small-scale or backyard farms with low biosecurity levels are considered major risk factors. Meanwhile, wild boars account for most notified cases in some countries and regions, which makes the epidemiologi… Leer más

Ito S., Kawaguchi N., Bosch J., Aguilar-Vega C. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

September 23rd, 2023

Hemolysis, icterus and lipemia interfere with the determination of two oxidative stress biomarkers in canine serum

BMC Veterinary Research 19(1):172.

     Background: Oxidative stress has been proven to play a role in numerous human and canine diseases. Among the biomarkers of oxidative stress, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) are two of the most widely used. Preanalytical factors are crucial for obtaining accurate results in these assays. Hemolysis, icterus and lipemia (HIL) are common sources of preanalytical errors in the laboratory; however, limited information is available regarding the considerations for canine specimens. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential interferences of HIL in the determination of TBARS and TAS in canine serum.
Methods: Solutions of pooled canine serum samples were prepared by … Leer más

Perez-Montero B., Fermin-Rodriguez ML., Miro G., de Juan L. and Cruz F..

September 22nd, 2023

Will we ever eradicate animal tuberculosis?

Irish Veterinary Journal 76(Suppl 1):24.

     Two characteristics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are particularly relevant for tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology and control, namely the ability of this group of pathogens to survive in the environment and thereby facilitate indirect transmission via water or feed, and the capacity to infect multiple host species including human beings, cattle, wildlife, and domestic animals other than cattle. As a consequence, rather than keeping the focus on certain animal species regarded as maintenance hosts, we postulate that it is time to think of complex and dynamic multi-host MTC maintenance communities where several wild and domestic species and the environment contribute to pathogen maintenance. Regarding the global situation of an… Leer más

Gortazar C., de la Fuente J., Perello A. and Dominguez L..

September 21st, 2023

Primary Feline Tauopathy: Clinical, Morphological, Immunohistochemical, and Genetic Studies

Animals 13:2985.

     Tauopathies are a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the pathological aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau in neurons and glia. Primary tauopathies are not uncommon in humans but exceptional in other species. We evaluate the clinical, neuropathological, and genetic alterations related to tau pathology in 16 cats aged from 1 to 21 years with different clinical backgrounds. Interestingly, a 10-year-old female cat presented a six-year progressive history of mental status and gait abnormalities. The imaging study revealed generalized cortical atrophy. Due to the poor prognosis, the cat was euthanatized at the age of ten. Neuropathological lesions were characterized by massive neuronal loss with marked spongiosis and associat… Leer más

Vidal-Palencia L., Font C., Rebollada A., Santpere G., Andres-Benito P., Ferrer I. and Pumarola M.

September 1st, 2023

Epidemiological impacts of attenuated African swine fever virus circulating in wild boar populations

Research In Veterinary Science 162:104964.

     African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotype II has been present in wild boar in the European Union since 2014. Control measures have reduced the incidence of the ASF, but highly virulent as well as attenuated ASFV strains continue to circulate. We present the intraherd epidemiological parameters of low and highly virulent ASFV in wild boar from experimental data, and for the first time, evaluate the impact of attenuated strain circulation through unique deterministic compartmental model simulations under various potential scenarios and hypotheses. Using an estimated PCR infectious threshold of TPCR = 36.4, we obtained several transmission parameters, like an Rx (experimental intraherd R0) value of 4.5. We also introduce two novel epidemiologi… Leer más

Martinez-Aviles M., Bosch J., Ivorra B., Ramos AM., Ito S., Barasona JA. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

September 1st, 2023

Oral immunization with heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis reduces local parasite dissemination and hepatic granuloma development in mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis

Research In Veterinary Science 162:104963.

     Aiming to explore whether oral immunization with heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (HIMB) protects mice against Leishmania infection, 18 female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to the immunized group, that received oral HIMB, or the control group, and were infected by inoculation of 10,000 Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes in the footpad. Spleen culture was positive in 55.55% of immunized mice and in 100% of control mice (p = 0.082). The number of immunolabeled amastigotes number in the popliteal lymph node was lower in the immunized group (p = 0.009). The immunized group presented fewer mature granulomas in the liver (p = 0.005) and more Lys + macrophages (p = 0.002) and fewer CD3+ T lymphocytes (p < 0.001) per hepatic granuloma. W… Leer más

Ferreras-Colino E., Moreno I., Gortazar C., Sevilla I., Agullo-Ros I., Dominguez L., Juste R., Risalde MA. and Dominguez M.

August 31st, 2023

Epidemiological cut-off values for Vibrio anguillarum MIC and disc diffusion data generated by standardised methods

Diseases Of Aquatic Organisms 155:109-123.

     This work aims to generate the data needed to set epidemiological cut-off values for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disc-diffusion zone measurements of Vibrio anguillarum. A total of 261 unique isolates were tested, applying standard methods specifying incubation at 28°C for 24-28 h. Aggregated MIC distributions for a total of 247 isolates were determined in 9 laboratories for 11 agents. Data aggregations of the disc zone for the 10 agents analysed contained between 157 and 218 observations made by 4 to 7 laboratories. Acceptable ranges for quality control (QC) reference strains were available for 7 agents and the related multi-laboratory aggregated data were censored, excluding the data of a laboratory that failed to meet QC re… Leer más

Smith P., Le Devendec L., Jouy E., Larvor E., Le Breton A., Picon-Camacho S., Zrncic S., Zupicic IG., Oraic D., Karatas S., Verner-Jeffreys D., Wokorac-Joseph A., Light E., van Essen-Zanbergen A., van Gelderen B., Voobergen-Laarman M., Haenen OLM., Veldman KT., Madsen L., Mouritsen KK., Smith-Svanevik C., Hakonsholm F., Vela AI., Garcia M., Florio D., Fioravanti M., Cortinovis L., Pretto T., Manfrin A. and Baron S.

August 31st, 2023

Engineered live bacteria suppress Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in mouse lung and dissolve endotracheal-tube biofilms

Nature Biotechnology 41(8):1089-1098.

     Engineered live bacteria could provide a new modality for treating lung infections, a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the present study, we engineered a genome-reduced human lung bacterium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, to treat ventilator-associated pneumonia, a disease with high hospital mortality when associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. After validating the biosafety of an attenuated M. pneumoniae chassis in mice, we introduced four transgenes into the chromosome by transposition to implement bactericidal and biofilm degradation activities. We show that this engineered strain has high efficacy against an acute P. aeruginosa lung infection in a mouse model. In addition, we demonstrated that the engineered strain could dissolv… Leer más

Mazzolini R., Rodriguez-Arce I., Fernandez-Barat L., Pinero-Lambea C., Garrido V., Rebollada A., Motos A., Torres A., Grillo MJ., Serrano L. and Lluch-Senar M.

August 30th, 2023

Accelerometer-based detection of African swine fever infection in wild boar

Proceedings. Biological Sciences 290(2005):20231396.

     Infectious wildlife diseases that circulate at the interface with domestic animals pose significant threats worldwide and require early detection and warning. Although animal tracking technologies are used to discern behavioural changes, they are rarely used to monitor wildlife diseases. Common disease-induced behavioural changes include reduced activity and lethargy (`sickness behaviour`). Here, we investigated whether accelerometer sensors could detect the onset of African swine fever (ASF), a viral infection that induces high mortality in suids for which no vaccine is currently available. Taking advantage of an experiment designed to test an oral ASF vaccine, we equipped 12 wild boars with an accelerometer tag and quantified how ASF affe… Leer más

Morelle K., Barasona JA., Bosch J., Heine G., Daim A., Arnold J., Bauch T., Kosowska A., Cadenas-Fernández E., Martinez-Aviles M., Zuniga AB., Wikelski M., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. and Safi K.

August 23rd, 2023

An Outbreak of Aeromonas salmonicida in Juvenile Siberian Sturgeons (Acipenser baerii)

Animals 13(17):2697.

     Aeromonas salmonicida is one of the major threats to world aquaculture, causing fish furunculosis and high mortality rates in cultured fish, particularly salmonids. Although Aeromonas spp. is a thoroughly studied pathogen, little is known regarding aeromoniasis in sturgeons. After a mortality outbreak, four juvenile sturgeons (Acipenser baerii) were submitted for autopsy and tissue samples were collected for histopathological and microbiological studies. The external examination revealed size heterogenicity, skin hyperpigmentation and reduced body condition of sturgeons. Within the abdominal cavity, mild hepatomegaly and splenomegaly were observed, as well as generalized organic congestion. Histology revealed severe multifocal haemorrhagic … Leer más

Vazquez-Fernandez E., Chinchilla-Rodríguez B., Rebollada A., Dominguez L. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

August 10th, 2023

Low transmission risk of African swine fever virus between wild boar infected by an attenuated isolate and susceptible domestic pigs

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 10:1-10.

     African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal infectious disease that affects domestic and wild pigs. This complex virus has already affected five continents and more than 70 countries and is considered to be the main threat to the global swine industry. The disease can potentially be transmitted directly through contact with infectious animals, or indirectly by means of contaminated feed or environments. Nevertheless, the knowledge regarding the transmission patterns of different ASF virus isolates at the wildlife-livestock interface is still limited. We have, therefore, assessed the potential transmission of an attenuated ASF virus isolate between infectious wild boar and directly exposed domestic pig. We registered 3,369 interspecific interactio… Leer más

Kosowska A., Barasona JA., Barroso-Arevalo S., Blondeau-Leon L., Cadenas-Fernández E. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

August 10th, 2023

First description of a lesion in the upper digestive mucosa associated with a novel gammaherpesvirus in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded in the Western Mediterranean Sea

BMC Veterinary Research 19(1):118.

     Background: A wide variety of lesions have been associated with herpesvirus in cetaceans. However, descriptions of herpesvirus infections in the digestive system of cetaceans are scarce.
Case report: A young female striped dolphin stranded in the Valencian Community (Spain) on the 6th August 2021. The animal showed external macroscopic lesions suggestive of an aggressive interaction with bottlenose dolphins (rake marks in the epidermis). Internally, the main findings included congestion of the central nervous system and multiple, well-defined, whitish, irregularly shaped, proliferative lesions on the oropharyngeal and laryngopharyngeal mucosa. Histopathology revealed lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic meningoencephalitis, consistent w… Leer más

Vargas-Castro I., Crespo JL., Jimenez MA., Marco-Cabedo V., Munoz M., Garcia-Parraga D. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

August 1st, 2023

First detection of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in juvenile Siberian sturgeons (Acipenser baerii) and description of the pathological findings

Journal Of Fish Diseases 46(8):887-894.

     Flavobacterium psychrophilum affects many cultured fish species and is considered one of the most important bacterial pathogens causing substantial economic losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Here, F. psychrophilum was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and nested PCR as the aetiological agent causing mortality in diseased juvenile Siberian sturgeons (Acipenser baerii) reared on a freshwater fish farm. Diseased sturgeons were lethargic and displayed dark skin pigmentation, increased mucus production and the presence of skin ulcerations and haemorrhages specially on the ventral side and the base of fins. The histological examination of fish revealed proliferative b… Leer más

Chinchilla-Rodríguez B., Vazquez-Fernandez E., Rebollada A., Perez-Sancho M., Dominguez L. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

July 25th, 2023

Bovine tuberculosis in Spain, is it really the final countdown?

Irish Veterinary Journal 76(Suppl 1):13.

     Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a severe zoonotic disease that has major impacts on both health and the economy, and which has been subjected to specific eradication programmes in many countries for decades. This manuscript highlights the relevance of this disease in the context of the European Union (EU) and summarizes the epidemiological situation and the main tools (e.g. antemortem diagnostic tests, slaughterhouse surveillance, laboratories, comprehensive databases, etc.) used to control and eradicate bTB in the various EU countries with a focus on the situation in Spain. A comprehensive description of the specific bTB epidemiological situation in Spain is provided, together with an assessment of the evolution of different epidemiological i… Leer más

Bezos J., Saez-Llorente JL., Alvarez J., Romero B., Diez-Guerrier A., Dominguez L. and de Juan L..

July 6th, 2023

Multiplatform Metabolomics Characterization Reveals Novel Metabolites and Phospholipid Compositional Rules of Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20

International Journal Of Molecualr Sciences 24(13):11150.

     Haemophilus influenzae is a gram-negative bacterium of relevant clinical interest. H. influenzae Rd KW20 was the first organism to be sequenced and for which a genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) was developed. However, current H. influenzae GEMs are unable to capture several aspects of metabolome nature related to metabolite pools. To directly and comprehensively characterize the endometabolome of H. influenzae Rd KW20, we performed a multiplatform MS-based metabolomics approach combining LC-MS, GC-MS and CE-MS. We obtained direct evidence of 15-20% of the endometabolome present in current H. influenzae GEMs and showed that polar metabolite pools are interconnected through correlating metabolite islands. Notably, we obtained high-quality ev… Leer más

Fernandez-Garcia M., Ares M., Wedel E., Montero N., Barbas C., Rey-Stolle MF., Gonzalez-Zorn B. and García A.

July 4th, 2023

Evaluation of the performance of the IFN-y release assay in bovine tuberculosis free herds from five European countries

Veterinary Research 54(1):55.

     The diagnostic methods for granting and maintenance of the official tuberculosis-free (OTF) status and for intra-Community movement of cattle are the tuberculin skin tests (single or comparative) and the interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA). However, until now, IGRAs have been primarily applied in infected farms in parallel to the skin test to maximize the number of infected animals detected. Therefore, an evaluation of the performance of IGRAs in OTF herds to assess whether if their specificity is equal to or higher than that of the skin tests is needed. For this, a panel of 4365 plasma samples coming from 84 OTF herds in six European regions (five countries) was assembled and analysed using two IGRA kits, the ID Screen® Rum… Leer más

Gómez-Buendía A., Romero B., Bezos J., Saez-Llorente JL., Archetti I., Pacciarini M., Boschiroli ML., Girard S., Gutu E., Barbuceanu F., Karaoulani O., Stournara A., de Juan L. and Alvarez J..

July 1st, 2023

Epidemiological and genetic analysis of Cetacean Morbillivirus circulating on the Italian coast between 2018 and 2021

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 10:1216838.

     Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has caused several outbreaks, unusual mortality events, and interepidemic single-lethal disease episodes in the Mediterranean Sea. Since 2012, a new strain with a northeast (NE) Atlantic origin has been circulating among Mediterranean cetaceans, causing numerous deaths. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of CeMV in cetaceans stranded in Italy between 2018 and 2021 and characterize the strain of CeMV circulating. Out of the 354 stranded cetaceans along the Italian coastlines, 113 were CeMV-positive. This prevalence (31.9%) is one of the highest reported without an associated outbreak. All marine sectors along the Italian coastlines, except for the northern Adriatic coast, reported a posi… Leer más

Vargas-Castro I., Peletto S., Mattioda V., Goria M., Serraca L., Varello K., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Puleio R., Di Nocera F., Lucifora G., Acutis P., Casalone C., Grattarola C. and Giorda F.

July 1st, 2023

Estimating wolf (Canis lupus) densities using video camera traps and spatial capture-recapture analysis

Ecosphere 14(7):e4604.

     Estimating population density is critical for effective species conservation, wildlife management planning, and long-term monitoring. Obtaining accurate estimates is especially important for the wolf (Canis lupus), a widely distributed northern hemisphere apex predator whose management and conservation are highly controversial in most of its range, and whose presence usually generates high-profile media coverage. The peculiarities of wolf social spatial organization and behavior can violate the assumptions of capture–recapture models (uniformity and independence, respectively) to a greater or lesser extent and make it difficult to obtain precise and reliable density estimates. This paper presents a case study, which estimated the population… Leer más

Jimenez J., Cara D., Garcia-Dominguez F. and Barasona JA..

July 1st, 2023

Immunopathology of early and advanced epididymis lesions caused by Brucella ovis in rams

Veterinary Immunology And Immunopathology 261:110621.

     Ovine brucellosis is an infectious disease that causes alterations in the reproductive tract in ram and abortion in ewes. Their negative economic impact in ovine production warrants a thorough understanding the interactions between B. ovis and the host. Here, epididymis lesions of rams infected by B. ovis were histopathologically staged into early and advanced. Expression by immunohistochemistry of Brucella antigens, inflammatory cell markers (CD3, CD79αcy) and cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β1) was assessed in both stages. Early lesions were characterized by epithelial changes, interstitial inflammation, and mild fibrosis; whereas advanced lesions displayed caseous granulomas containing numerous macrophages, multinucleate… Leer más

Rebollada A., Garcia-Seco T., Chinchilla-Rodríguez B., Perez-Sancho M., Dominguez L. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

July 1st, 2023

Immune profiling of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to Lactococcus garvieae: Evidence in asymptomatic versus symptomatic or vaccinated fish

Journal Of Fish Diseases 46(7):731-741.

     Lactococcosis, caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus garvieae, is a major concern in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms, which are regularly affected by outbreaks especially during the summer/fall months. In these farms, unvaccinated healthy and symptomatic fish can coexist with vaccinated fish. In the present study, innate (leukogram, serum lysozyme activity, peroxidase activity, antiprotease activity, bactericidal activity, total IgM and total proteins), and specific immune parameters (serum antibodies to L. garvieae) were assessed in unvaccinated adult rainbow trout naturally exposed to the pathogen, with or without evidence of clinical signs, or subjected to vaccination. Blood was drawn from all three groups, and bloo… Leer más

Ibrahim Khalil SM., Bulfon C., Galeotti M., Acutis PL., Altinok I., Kotzamanidis C., Vela AI., Fariano L., Prearo M., Colussi S. and Volpatti D.

July 1st, 2023

Mycobacterium bovis in Egyptian mongoose, Spain

Zoonoses And Public Health 70(4):365-368.

     Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and other related mycobacteria has been reported in a wide range of mammals worldwide. In the case of the Herpestidae family, Mycobacterium mungi and M. bovis, both belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex, have been reported in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in Africa and in Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon) in Portugal, respectively. Thus, we hypothesized that Tuberculosis may occur in Egyptian mongooses from Spain. Twenty-five found dead Egyptian mongooses were necropsied in order to detect macroscopic TB-compatible lesions and mandibular lymph nodes and lungs were cultured onto mycobacteria-specific growth media. We isolated M. bovis in 3/25 Egyptian mongooses (12.00%, IC95: … Leer más

Ferreras-Colino E., Descalzo E., Romero B., Gortazar C. and Ferreras P.

June 27th, 2023

Insertion Sequences Determine Plasmid Adaptation to New Bacterial Hosts

MBio 14(3):e0315822.

     Plasmids facilitate the vertical and horizontal spread of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria. The host range and adaptation of plasmids to new hosts determine their impact on the spread of resistance. In this work, we explore the mechanisms driving plasmid adaptation to novel hosts in experimental evolution. Using the small multicopy plasmid pB1000, usually found in Pasteurellaceae, we studied its adaptation to a host from a different bacterial family, Escherichia coli. We observed two different mechanisms of adaptation. One mechanism is single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the origin of replication (oriV) of the plasmid, which increase the copy number in E. coli cells, elevating the stability, and resistance profile. The … Leer más

Wedel E., Bernabe-Balas C., Ares M., Montero N., Santos-Lopez A., Mazel D. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

June 14th, 2023

Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Resistance Mechanisms in Mannheimia haemolytica Isolates from Sheep at Slaughter

Animals 13(12):1991.

     Mannheimia haemolytica is a key bacterial pathogen contributing to important ruminant diseases and accounting for a large proportion of overall antimicrobial use in cattle and sheep. The recent emergence of ovine strains with reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials—which could lead to treatment failure, increased costs of livestock production, and the dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant genes to other bacteria and possibly the environment—is of concern. This study investigated the levels of antimicrobial resistance of M. haemolytica isolated from clinically healthy sheep at slaughter and the genetic bacterial resistance mechanisms. Low levels of phenotypic resistance were detected for most of the antimicrobials tested except for tetra… Leer más

Alvarez J., Calderón-Bernal JM., Torre-Fuentes L., Hernandez M., Pinto-Jimenez CE., Dominguez L., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Vela AI. and Cid D.

June 6th, 2023

SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence Studies in Pets, Spain

Emerging Infectious Diseases 29(6):1136-1142.

     SARS-CoV-2 can infect domestic animals such as cats and dogs. The zoonotic origin of the disease requires surveillance on animals. Seroprevalence studies are useful tools for detecting previous exposure because the short period of virus shedding in animals makes detection of the virus difficult. We report on an extensive serosurvey on pets in Spain that covered 23 months. We included animals with exposure to SARS-CoV-2-infected persons, random animals, and stray animals in the study. We also evaluated epidemiologic variables such as human accumulated incidence and spatial location. We detected neutralizing antibodies in 3.59% of animals and showed a correlation between COVID-19 incidence in humans and positivity to antibody detection in pet… Leer más

Barroso-Arevalo S., Sánchez-Morales L., Barasona JA., Dominguez L. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

June 1st, 2023

Seroepidemiology of tuberculosis in sheep in southern Spain

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 215:105920.

     Tuberculosis (TB) is a multi-host infectious disease caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). In Mediterranean ecosystems, where multiple animal hosts of TB are present, identifying the role of the different species involved in the epidemiology of TB is a key point to be able to implement proper control measures. Sheep are susceptible to MTC infection but have traditionally been considered a spillover host. However, the occurrence of outbreaks involving sheep in recent years evidences the need to better understand the role of this small ruminant species in the epidemiology of the disease. Here, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with MTC seropositivity in sheep in Andalusia (southe… Leer más

Jimenez-Martin D., Cano-Terriza D., Risalde MA., Napp S., Alvarez J., Fernandez-Molera V., Moreno I., Infantes-Lorenzo JA. and Garcia-Bocanegra I.

June 1st, 2023

Once bitten twice shy: Risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis recurrence in Castilla y Leon, Spain

Research In Veterinary Science 159:72-80.

     Persistence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herd remains a major challenge in disease elimination due to the ineffectual removal of all infected animals in a bTB breakdown. Characterization of herds with a higher probability of experiencing further bTB breakdowns can help to implement specific risk-based policies for disease control and eradication. Here, our aim was to identify herd- and breakdown-level risk factors in bTB infected herds in Castilla y Leon, Spain, associated with a decreased time to recurrence and an increased risk of recurrence using a mixed effects Cox proportional hazards model and a multivariable logistic regression model, respectively. Results revealed that location (province), herd size and number of incoming … Leer más

Pozo P., Bezos J., Romero B., Grau A., Nacar J., Saez-Llorente JL., Minguez O. and Alvarez J..

May 23rd, 2023

Histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings in the placentas and fetuses of domestic swine naturally infected with Brucella suis biovar 2

Journal Of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 35(3):258-265.

     Porcine brucellosis, which is caused by Brucella suis biovar (bv) 2, is a re-emerging disease that causes reproductive problems in pigs in Europe. The pathogenesis and lesions of B. suis intrauterine infection are poorly characterized; characterization could facilitate the diagnosis and investigation of porcine brucellosis. We collected samples of placentas and fetuses for histologic and microbiologic studies during an outbreak of abortions on a pig-breeding farm in Spain. Brucella was cultured from the vaginal swabs obtained from sows that had aborted, some placentas, and fetal tissues (spleen, liver, lung, gastric content); molecular testing confirmed B. suis bv 2 infection. Histologically, there was necrotizing and hemorrhagic placentiti… Leer más

Rebollada A., Garcia-Seco T., Perez-Sancho M., Dominguez L. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

May 17th, 2023

16S-23S rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacer Region ( ITS) Sequencing: A Potential Molecular Diagnostic Tool for Differentiating Lactococcus garvieae and Lactococcus petauri

Microorganisms 11(5):1320.

     Lactococcus garvieae is the etiological agent of lactococcosis, a clinically and economically significant infectious disease affecting farmed rainbow trout. L. garvieae had been considered the only cause of lactococcosis for a long time; however, L. petauri, another species of the genus Lactococcus, has lately been linked to the same disease. The genomes and biochemical profiles of L. petauri and L. garvieae have a high degree of similarity. Traditional diagnostic tests currently available cannot distinguish between these two species. The aim of this study was to use the transcribed spacer (ITS) region between 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA as a potential useful molecular target to differentiate L. garvieae from L. petauri, saving time and money com… Leer más

Stoppani N., Colussi S., Pastorino P., Prearo M., Sciuto S., Altinok I., Ozturk RC., Ture M., Vela AI., Blanco MM., Kotzamanidis C., Bitchava K., Malousi A., Fariano L., Volpatti D., Acutis PL. and Fernandez-Garayzabal JF..

April 18th, 2023

Editorial: Advancing the development and implementation of regional, national tuberculosis control programs in livestock in Africa, Asia, and Latin America

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 10:1192091.

     Tuberculosis in livestock caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) complex is a notifiable zoonotic animal disease (1), which has been eradicated or held to very low prevalence levels in many high-income economies. Successful campaigns were all build
on a very strict test-and-slaughter strategy using the tuberculin PPD skin tests as diagnostic tool. However, tuberculosis in livestock remains endemic in most Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). This not only represents a threat to public health in those countries but also places a significant burden on their economies due to a negative impact on livestock productivity and the resources invested in healthcare, prevention, surveillance, and, when present, control a… Leer más

Bakker D., Buza JJ., Alvarez J. and Kapur V.

April 11st, 2023

Genome-wide association reveals host-specific genomic traits in Escherichia coli

BMC Biology 21(1):76.

     Escherichia coli is an opportunistic pathogen that can colonize or infect various host species. There is a significant gap in our understanding to what extent genetic lineages of E. coli are adapted or restricted to specific hosts. In addition, genomic determinants underlying such host specificity are unknown.By analyzing a randomly sampled collection of 1198 whole-genome sequenced E. coli isolates from four countries (Germany, UK, Spain, and Vietnam), obtained from five host species (human, pig, cattle, chicken, and wild boar) over 16 years, from both healthy and diseased hosts, we demonstrate that certain lineages of E. coli are frequently detected in specific hosts. We report a novel nan gene cluster, designated nan-9, putatively encodin… Leer más

Tiwari SK., van der Putten BCL., Fuchs TM., Vinh TN., Bootsma M., Oldenkamp R., La Ragione RM., Matamoros S., Hoa NT., Berens C., Leng J., Alvarez J., Ferrandis- Vila M., Ritchie JM., Fruth A., Schwarz S., Dominguez L., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Bethe A., Huber C., Johanns V., Stamm I., Wieler LH., Ewers C., Fivian-Hughes A., Schmitt H., Menge C., Semmler T. and Schultsz C.

March 24th, 2023

Global scenario of the RmtE pan-aminoglycoside-resistance mechanism: emergence of the rmtE4 gene in South America associated with a hospital-related IncL plasmid

Microbial Genomics 9(3).

     Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms, especially those conferring resistance to critically important antibiotics, are a great concern for public health. 16S rRNA methyltransferases (16S-RMTases) abolish the effectiveness of most clinically used aminoglycosides, but some of them are considered sporadic, such as RmtE. The main goals of this work were the genomic analysis of bacteria producing 16S-RMTases from a ‘One Health’ perspective in Venezuela, and the study of the epidemiological and evolutionary scenario of RmtE variants and their related mobile genetic elements (MGEs) worldwide. A total of 21 samples were collected in 2014 from different animal and environmental sources in the Cumaná region (Venezuela). Highly aminoglycosid… Leer más

Delgado-Blas JF., Ovejero CM., David S., Serna C., Pulido-Vadillo M., Montero N., Aanensen DM., Abadia-Patino L. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

March 18th, 2023

Drug Repositioning as a Therapeutic Strategy against Streptococcus pneumoniae: Cell Membrane as Potential Target

International Journal Of Molecualr Sciences 24(6):5831.

     A collection of repurposing drugs (Prestwick Chemical Library) containing 1200 compounds was screened to investigate the drugs` antimicrobial effects against planktonic cultures of the respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. After four discrimination rounds, a set of seven compounds was finally selected, namely (i) clofilium tosylate; (ii) vanoxerine; (iii) mitoxantrone dihydrochloride; (iv) amiodarone hydrochloride; (v) tamoxifen citrate; (vi) terfenadine; and (vii) clomiphene citrate (Z, E). These molecules arrested pneumococcal growth in a liquid medium and induced a decrease in bacterial viability between 90.0% and 99.9% at 25 µM concentration, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) also in the micromolar range. Moreover, … Leer más

Ortiz-Miravalles L., Sanchez-Angulo M., Sanz JM. and Maestro B.

March 10th, 2023

Histopathology, Immunohistochemical Diagnosis, and Management of Penicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus delphini Cutaneous Infection in a Bottlenose Dolphin

Aquatic Mammals 49(2), 117-120.

Romani-Cremaschi U., Rebollada A., Canales R., Vargas-Castro I., Perez-Sancho M., Sanchez-Vizcaino F., Dominguez M., Dominguez L. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

March 8th, 2023

One Health surveillance - cross-sectoral detection, characterisation, and notification of foodborne pathogens

Frontiers In Public Health 11:1129083.

     Several Proficiency Test (PT) or External Quality Assessment (EQA) schemes are currently available for assessing the ability of laboratories to detect and characterise enteropathogenic bacteria, but they are usually targeting one sector, covering either public health, food safety or animal health. In addition to sector-specific PTs/EQAs for detection, cross-sectoral panels would be useful for assessment of the capacity to detect and characterise foodborne pathogens in a One Health (OH) perspective and further improving food safety and interpretation of cross-sectoral surveillance data. The aims of the study were to assess the crosssectoral capability of European public health, animal health and food safety laboratories to detect, characteri… Leer más

Tast-Lathi E., Karamehmedovic N., Riedel H., Blom L., Boel J., Delibato E., Denis M., van Essen-Zanbergen A., Garcia-Fernandez A., Hendriksen R., Heydecke A., van Hoek AH., Huby T., Kwit R., Lucarelli C., Lundin K., Michelacci V., Owczarek S., Ring I., Kjeldgaard JS., Sjogren I., Skora M., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Torpdahl M., Veldman K., Ventola E., Zajac M. and Jernberg C.

March 6th, 2023

A useful tool for the safe diagnosis and control of the two main pandemics of the XXI century: COVID-19 and African Swine Fever disease

PLoS ONE 18(3):e0282632.

     The COVID-19 pandemic and the disease triggered by the African Swine Fever virus are currently two of the main problems regarding public and animal health, respectively. Although vaccination seems to be the ideal tool for controlling these diseases, it has several limitations. Therefore, early detection of the pathogen is critical in order to apply preventive and control measures. Real-time PCR is the main technique used for the detection of both viruses, which requires previous processing of the infectious material. If the potentially infected sample is inactivated at the time of sampling, the diagnosis will be accelerated, impacting positively on the diagnosis and control of the disease. Here, we evaluated the inactivation and preservatio… Leer más

Barroso-Arevalo S., Diaz-de Frutos M., Kosowska A., Perez-Sancho M., Dominguez L. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

March 1st, 2023

Treatment with the senolytics dasatinib/quercetin reduces SARS-CoV-2-related mortality in mice

Aging Cell 22(3):e13771.

     The enormous societal impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has been particularly harsh for some social groups, such as the elderly. Recently, it has been suggested that senescent cells could play a central role in pathogenesis by exacerbating the pro-inflammatory immune response against SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the selective clearance of senescent cells by senolytic drugs may be useful as a therapy to ameliorate the symptoms of COVID-19 in some cases. Using the established COVID-19 murine model K18-hACE2, we demonstrated that a combination of the senolytics dasatinib and quercetin (D/Q) significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2-related mortality, delayed its onset, and reduced the number of other clinical symptoms. The increase in senescent markers… Leer más

Pastor-Fernandez A., Rodriguez-Bertos A., Sierra-Ramirez A., del Moral-Salmoral J., Merino J., de Avila AI., Olague C., Villares R., Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza G., Rodriguez MA., Fresno M., Girones N., Bustos M., Smerdou C., Fernandez-Marcos PJ. and von Kobbe C.

March 1st, 2023

Struggling to improve farm biosecurity: Do free advice and subsidies hit the target?

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 212:105839.

     Biosafety measures (BSMs) often aim at reducing the likelihood of cross-species interactions at the wildlife-livestock interface. Examples include means to segregate wild ungulates from cattle at waterholes or at feeders. Subsidies or incentives for BSM implementation are expected to contribute to improved BSM acceptance. However, several recent experiences led us to write a cautionary commentary on the variable success of incentives in farm biosafety promotion. We list examples where, after offering farm-specific biosecurity action plans for free or subsidizing 100% of the cost of a given BSM, 25-40% of the farmers remained unwilling to invest efforts in farm biosafety and BSM maintenance. We suggest seeking a better understanding of farme… Leer más

Preite L., Barroso P., Romero B., Balseiro A. and Gortazar C.

February 28th, 2023

A Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Model to Estimate the Distribution of Bushpigs on Madagascar and Its Implications for African Swine Fever

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 7976252.

     Bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus) play a major role in the socio-ecosystem of Madagascar, particularly in rural areas. They are largely hunted by rural populations as a major source of income and protein. They can also represent a potential source of pathogens for domestic animals and people. For example, it is hypothesized that bushpigs might compromise African swine fever (ASF) eradication programs by sporadically transmitting the virus to domestic pigs. However, available knowledge on the distribution of bushpigs in Madagascar is limited. In this study, we estimated the distribution of bushpigs on Madagascar using a species distribution model (SDM). We retrieved 206 sightings of bushpigs in Madagascar during 1990–2016 and predicted the d… Leer más

Diaz-Cao JM., Grossmann N., Goodman SM., Bosch J., Guis H., Rasamoelina M., Rakotoarivony R., Jori F. and Martinez-Lopez B.

February 23rd, 2023

Tuberculosis Epidemiology and Spatial Ecology at the Cattle-Wild Boar Interface in Northern Spain

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 2147191.

     Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious chronic disease due to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) bacteria. Monitoring
of wildlife, especially potential reservoirs, is important for detecting changes in disease occurrence and assessing the impact of interventions. Here, we examined whether wild boar (Sus scrofa) may contribute to the re-emergence of TB in Asturias (10,604 km2
), northern Spain. Although this province was declared free of TB in cattle in November 2021, MTC bacteria remain prevalent in several
“hotspots,” with the European badger (Meles meles) suggested as a TB potential wild reservoir. Drawing on data from the Spanish National Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication Program and the Government of t… Leer más

Herrero-Garcia G., Acevedo P., Quiros P., Prieto M., Romero B., Amado J., Queipo MA., Gortazar C. and Balseiro A.

February 22nd, 2023

Off-Target Integron Activity Leads to Rapid Plasmid Compensatory Evolution in Response to Antibiotic Selection Pressure

MBio e0253722.

     Integrons are mobile genetic elements that have played an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Under stress, the integron can generate combinatorial variation in resistance cassette expression by cassette reshuffling, accelerating the evolution of resistance. However, the flexibility of the integron integrase site recognition motif hints at potential off-target effects of the integrase on the rest of the genome that may have important evolutionary consequences. Here, we test this hypothesis by selecting for increased-piperacillin-resistance populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a mobile integron containing a difficult-to-mobilize β-lactamase cassette to minimize the potential for adaptive cassette reshuffl… Leer más

Souque C., Escudero JA. and MacLean RC.

February 22nd, 2023

Development of an Effective Oral Vaccine Dissemination Strategy against Classical Swine Fever for Wild Boar in Gifu Prefecture, Japan

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 1-13.

     In September 2018, classical swine fever (CSF) reemerged in Japan after more than a quarter of a century. After the first notification on a pig farm, wild boars positive for CSF were found continuously in the surrounding area. Gifu was the first prefecture in Japan to disseminate oral vaccines to wild boars in March 2019, with vaccines spread to approximately 14,000 sites between 2019 and 2020. While these diligent measures seemed to have shown some effectiveness, several vaccine spray sites remained without wild boar emergence. Based on the vaccine dissemination records from these periods, this study conducted a statistical analysis to propose more effective vaccine dissemination sites. First, a generalized linear mixed model was used to i… Leer más

Ito S., Bosch J., Aguilar-Vega C., Isoda N., Martinez-Aviles M. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

February 21st, 2023

Accuracy of Tests for Diagnosis of Animal Tuberculosis: Moving Away from the Golden Calf (and towards Bayesian Models)

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 1-18.

     The last decades have seen major eforts to develop new and improved tools to maximize our ability to detect tuberculosis-infected animals and advance towards the objective of disease control and ultimately eradication. Nevertheless, there is still uncertainty regarding test performance due to the wide range of specifcity and especially sensitivity estimates published in the scientifc literature. Here, we performed a systematic review of the literature on studies that evaluated the performance of tuberculosis diagnostic tests used in animals through Bayesian Latent Class Models (BLCMs), which do not require the application of a (fallible) reference procedure to classify animals as infected with tuberculosis or not. BLCM-based sensitivity and… Leer más

Gómez-Buendía A., Pozo P., Picasso-Risso C., Branscum AJ., Perez A. and Alvarez J..

February 20th, 2023

A tool to enhance antimicrobial stewardship using similarity networks to identify antimicrobial resistance patterns across farms

Scientific Reports 13(1):2931.

     Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the major challenges of the century and should be addressed with a One Health approach. This study aimed to develop a tool that can provide a better understanding of AMR patterns and improve management practices in swine production systems to reduce its spread between farms. We generated similarity networks based on the phenotypic AMR pattern for each farm with information on important bacterial pathogens for swine farming based on the Euclidean distance. We included seven pathogens: Actinobacillus suis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Escherichia coli, Glaesserella parasuis, Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella spp., and Streptococcus suis; and up to seventeen antibiotics from ten classes. A threshold crite… Leer más

Aguilar-Vega C., Scoglio C., Clavijo MJ., Robbins R., Karriker L., Liu X. and Martinez-Lopez B.

February 20th, 2023

Differences in skin test reactions to official and defined antigens in guinea pigs exposed to non-tuberculous and tuberculous bacteria

Scientific Reports 13:2936.

     The single and comparative intradermal tuberculin tests (SITT and CITT) are official in vivo tests for bovine tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis using bovine and avian purified protein derivatives (PPD-B and PPD-A). Infection with bacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) can result in nonspecific reactions to these tests. We evaluated the performance of the skin test with PPDs and new defined antigens in the guinea pig model. A standard dose (SD) of Rhodococcus equi, Nocardia sp., M. nonchromogenicum, M. monacense, M. intracellulare, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, M. avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. scrofulaceum, M. persicum, M. microti, M. caprae and M. bovis, and a higher dose (HD) of M. nonchromogenicum… Leer más

Fernandez-Veiga L., Fuertes M., Geijo M., Perez del Val B., Vidal E., Michelet L., Boschiroli ML., Gómez-Buendía A., Bezos J., Jones GJ., Vordermeier M., Juste RA., Garrido JM. and Sevilla AI.

February 17th, 2023

Cluster analysis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD)-associated pathogens shows the existence of two epidemiological patterns in BRD outbreaks

Veterinary Microbiology 280:109701.

     A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to classify outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease (BRD; n = 156) in natural groups according to the detection of nine pathogens (parainfluenza 3 virus (PI-3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronavirus (BCV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. Pathogens were detected by individual q-PCRs. Two clusters were identified. Cluster 1 was characterized by a relatively high frequency (40-72%) of four BRD-associated viruses, supporting their primary involvement in BRD. Cluster 2 was characterized by frequencies of PI-3, BRSV, or BVDV below 10% each. P. multocida and M… Leer más

Calderón-Bernal JM., Fernandez A., Arnal JL., Baselga C., Zuniga AB., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Vela AI. and Cid D.

February 14th, 2023

Portable Differential Detection of CTX-M ESBL Gene Variants, blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15, from Escherichia coli Isolates and Animal Fecal Samples Using Loop-Primer Endonuclease Cleavage Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

Microbiology Spectrum 11(1):e0331622.

     Cefotaximase-Munich (CTX-M) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes produced by Enterobacteriaceae confer resistance to clinically relevant third-generation cephalosporins. CTX-M group 1 variants, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-15, are the leading ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae associated with animal and human infection, respectively, and are an increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) global health concern. The blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15 genes encoding these variants have an approximate nucleotide sequence similarity of 98.7%, making effective differential diagnostic monitoring difficult. Loop-primer endonuclease cleavage loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LEC-LAMP) enables rapid real-time multiplex pathogen detection with single-base … Leer más

Higgins O., Chueiri A., O´Connor L., Lahiff S., Burke L., Morris D., Pfeifer NM., Gonzalez-Santamarina B., Berens C., Menge C., Canica M., Manageiro V., Kisand V., Hassan MM., Gardner B., van Vliet AHM., La Ragione R., Gonzalez-Zorn B. and Smith TJ.

January 17th, 2023

Characterization of the Fecal and Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dogs with Chronic Inflammatory Enteropathy

Animals 13:326.

     Chronic inflammatory enteropathies are the most common cause of chronic vomiting and diarrhea in dogs. The pathogenesis of this disease is known to be multifactorial, where intestinal barrier dysfunction, immunological dysregulation and gut microbiota changes play a central role. Most sequencing studies assessing the intestinal microbiota in canine species have been made to evaluate fecal samples. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to characterize the intestinal bacterial microbiota from duodenal biopsies and fecal samples in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease at the diagnosis time and to compare it to healthy dogs. Our study results demonstrate that
dogs with inflammatory bowel disease have significantly different gut microbiota w… Leer más

Diaz-Reganon D., Garcia-Sancho M., Villaescusa A., Sainz A., Agulla B., Reyes-Prieto M., Rodriguez-Bertos A. and Rodriguez-Franco F.

January 4th, 2023

What about the bull? A systematic review about the role of males in bovine infectious infertility within cattle herds

Veterinary And Animal Science 19:100284.

     Numerous pathogens affect cow fertility. Nevertheless, little information has been published about microorganisms associated with cattle infertility focusing on bulls. The present review offers a current analysis and highlights potential key aspects on the relevance of bulls in the emergence of infertility problems of infectious origin within herds that are still not completely determined. The present systematic review was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases on December 9, 2022. In total, 2,224 bibliographic records were reviewed and, according to strict inclusion criteria, 38 articles were selected from 1966 to 2022, from which we ranked more than 27 different microorganisms (fungi were not identified). The mos… Leer más

Polo C., Garcia-Seco T., Diez-Guerrier A., Briones V., Dominguez L. and Perez-Sancho M..

January 1st, 2023

First report and molecular characterization of cases of natural Taylorella asinigenitalis infection in three donkey breeds in Spain

Veterinary Microbiology 276:109604.

     Taylorella asinigenitalis is a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the genital tract of donkeys but also a cause of metritis and vaginal discharge in mares. It is closely related to Taylorella equigenitalis, the cause of Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) in horses, and has been present in different countries in Europe since 1995. Up to date, there are no studies on the prevalence of T. asinigenitalis in the equine or asinine populations in Spain; this is the first report of the presence of T. asinigenitalis in donkeys (Equus asinus) from different breeds in three regions of Spain. A total of 106 healthy animals of three different Spanish donkey breeds: Andaluza (26), Majorera (12) and Zamorano-Leonés (68) were sampled between June and July… Leer más

Dorrego-Rodriguez A., Herranz-Benito C., Perez-Sancho M., Camino E., Gomez-Arrones V., Carrasco JJ., de Gabriel-Perez J., Serres C. and Cruz F..

January 1st, 2023

Intestinal T-cell lymphoma in an Asian small-clawed otter: case report and literature review of lymphoma in the subfamily Lutrinae

Journal Of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 35(1):72-75.

     The Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) is an endangered species that is common in zoologic collections. A 17-y-old female Asian small-clawed otter under human care, with a clinical history of chronic renal disease, was euthanized because of deteriorating health. Histologically, the jejunal wall was infiltrated by a monomorphic population of small neoplastic lymphocytes that expanded the lamina propria of the villi and crypts, and on rare occasions invaded the submucosa. The tumor was composed of T cells (CD3+) with a proliferation index of 16%. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Hematopoietic Neoplasms in Domestic Animals, this lymphoma was classified as an enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) typ… Leer más

Rebollada A., Canales R., Romani-Cremaschi U. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

Science Publication
ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 250 SUAT 61 SUAT 15
2 ICM 237 ZTA 53 SAP 11
3 MYC 227 MYC 48 MYC 11
4 SUAT 219 ICM 40 ZTA 6
5 NED 75 SAP 31 ICM 4
  VISAVET 1124 315 55

Impact Factor Average
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 3.907 ZTA 5.359 ZTA 6.183
2 SAP 3.818 SUAT 4.227 SAP 6.06
3 SUAT 2.987 SAP 4.095 NED 4.3
4 MYC 2.8 NED 3.858 SUAT 4.287
5 DICM 2.776 ICM 3.798 MYC 3.118
VISAVET 3.284 4.885 6.794

ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo.
1 Transbound Emerg Dis 93 Front Vet Sci 35
2 Vet Microbiol 88 Transbound Emerg Dis 32
3 Prev Vet Med 77 Animals 15
4 Front Vet Sci 61 Res Vet Sci 14
5 PLoS ONE 56 Sci Rep 14
  All journals 354   All journals 39