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SCI scientific publications 2019

December 21st, 2019

Hypervitaminosis D has no positive effects on goat tuberculosis and may cause chronic renal lesions

The Veterinary Record 185(24):759.

There is evidence for a link between vitamin D deficiency and active tuberculosis (TB). In human beings, several trials have evaluated the role of vitamin D supplementation in TB treatment with conflicting results. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in animal TB control has received less attention. The authors evaluated the benefit of vitamin D supplementation for preventing mycobacterial infection or reducing TB lesions (TBL) in a controlled trial with goats naturally exposed to Mycobacterium caprae.
Two groups of goats, a vitamin D-supplemented group and a non-supplemented control group, were housed for 10 months in direct contact with M caprae-infected adult goats. Upon contact … Leer más

Risalde MA., Roy A., Bezos J., Pineda C., Casal C., Diez-Guerrier A., Lopez-Villalba I., Fernandez-Manzano A., Moreno I., de Juan L., Dominguez L. and Gortazar C.

December 16th, 2019

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida isolated from sheep and pigs in Spain - Short communication

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 67(4):489-498.

     Pasteurella multocida is responsible for economically important diseases in sheep and pigs. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies are essential for initiating rational and effective empirical therapy of P. multocida infections. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents of 156 clinical isolates of P. multocida from sheep (n = 87) and pigs (n = 69) using the microdilution method. Both sheep and pig isolates exhibited low levels of resistance (≤ 15%) to ceftiofur, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, chlortetracycline, tulathromycin, florfenicol, danofloxacin, and enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, high resistance rates (> 15% up to 50%) to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, and tiam… Leer más

Cid D., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Pinto C., Dominguez L. and Vela AI..

December 10th, 2019

Tuberculosis Epidemiology and Badger (Meles meles) Spatial Ecology in a Hot-Spot Area in Atlantic Spain

Pathogens 8(4)292.

     We provide a temporal overview (from 2012 to 2018) of the outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) in the cattle and badger populations in a hot-spot in Asturias (Atlantic Spain). We also study the badger’s spatial ecology from an epidemiological perspective in order to describe hazardous behavior in relation to TB transmission between cattle and badgers. Culture and single intradermal tuberculin test (SITT) were available for cattle as part of the National Program for the Eradication of TB. A field survey was also carried out in order to determine the paddocks and buildings used by each farm, and the information obtained was stored by using geographic information systems. Moreover, eighty-three badgers were submitted for necropsy and subsequent bacte… Leer más

Acevedo P., Prieto M., Quiros P., Merediz I., de Juan L., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Triguero-Ocana R. and Balseiro A.

December 7th, 2019

Association between results of diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis and Johne`s disease in cattle

The Veterinary Record 185(22):693.

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) diagnosis is impaired by numerous factors including cross-reactivity with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, which causes Johne`s disease (JD). In addition, the effect of repeated bTB-intradermal testing on the performance of JD diagnostic tests is not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of repeated bTB-intradermal tests under field conditions in Spain on the JD serological status of cattle.

bTB-positive herds (n=264) from Castilla-y-Leon region were selected and matched with officially tuberculosis-free control herds. The association between JD and bTB status at the herd level was assessed using conditional logistic regression an… Leer más

Picasso C., Grau A., Bakker D., Nacar J., Minguez O., Perez AM. and Alvarez J..

December 3rd, 2019

Selective Persulfide Detection Reveals Evolutionarily Conserved Antiaging Effects of S-Sulfhydration

Cell Metabolism 30(6):1152-1170.e13.

     Life on Earth emerged in a hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-rich environment eons ago and with it protein persulfidation mediated by H2S evolved as a signaling mechanism. Protein persulfidation (S-sulfhydration) is a post-translational modification of reactive cysteine residues, which modulate protein structure and/or function. Persulfides are difficult to label and study due to their reactivity and similarity with cysteine. Here, we report a facile strategy for chemoselective persulfide bioconjugation using dimedone-based probes, to achieve highly selective, rapid, and robust persulfide labeling in biological samples with broad utility. Using this method, we show persulfidation is an evolutionarily conserved modification and waves of persulfidation … Leer más

Zivanovic J., Kouroussis E., Kohl JB., Adhikari B., Bursac B., Schott-Roux S., Petrovic D., Miljkovic JL., Thomas-Lopez D., Jung Y., Miler M., Mitchell S., Milosevic V., Gomes JE., Benhar M., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Ivanovic-Burmazovic I., Torregrossa R., Mitchell JR., Whiteman M., Schwarz G., Snyder SH., Paul BD., Carroll KS. and Filipovic MR.

December 2nd, 2019

Use of a voluntary testing program to study the spatial epidemiology of Johne’s disease affecting dairy herds in Minnesota: a cross sectional study

BMC Veterinary Research 15(1):429.

     One of the key steps in the management of chronic diseases in animals including Johne’s disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is the ability to track disease incidence over space and time. JD surveillance in the U.S. dairy cattle is challenging due to lack of regulatory requirements, imperfect diagnostic tests, and associated expenses, including time and labor. An alternative approach is to use voluntary testing programs. Here, data from a voluntary JD testing program, conducted by the Minnesota Dairy Herd Improvement Association, were used to: a) explore whether such a program provides representative information on JD-prevalence in Minnesota dairy herds, b) estimate JD distribution, and, c) identify her… Leer más

Kanankege KST., Machado G., Zhang L., Dokkebakken B., Schumann V., Wells SJ., Perez AM. and Alvarez J..

December 1st, 2019

Assessment of the sensitivity of the bovine tuberculosis eradication program in a high prevalence region of Spain using scenario tree modeling

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 173:104800.

     In spite of the efforts invested to eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle, the disease is still present in several developed countries, including Spain. Among the factors related with disease persistence in high prevalence areas, the lack of sensitivity of the screening test for detection of infected herds [single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test] can play a major role. Here, a scenario tree model mimicking the diagnostic test scheme in place in the region of Castilla y Leon (Spain) was developed to estimate the probability of detecting bTB in an infected-non detected officially tuberculosis free (OTF) herd (herd sensitivity, HSe). In order to do so the probability of detecting at least one positive animal in the SIT test with/with… Leer más

de la Cruz ML., Pozo P., Grau A., Nacar J., Bezos J., Perez AM., Dominguez L., Saez-Llorente JL., Minguez O., de Juan L. and Alvarez J..

December 1st, 2019

Gene pool transmission of multidrug resistance among Campylobacter from livestock, sewage and human disease

Environmental Microbiology 21(12):4597-4613.

     The use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine has coincided with a rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the food‐borne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Faecal contamination from the main reservoir hosts (livestock, especially poultry) is the principal route of human infection but little is known about the spread of AMR among source and sink populations. In particular, questions remain about how Campylobacter resistomes interact between species and hosts, and the potential role of sewage as a conduit for the spread of AMR. Here we investigate the genomic variation associated with AMR in 168 C. jejuni and 92 C. coli strains isolated from humans, livestock and urban effluents in Spain. Antimicrobia… Leer más

Mourkas E., Florez-Cuadrado D., Pascoe B., Calland JK., Bayliss SC., Mageiros L., Meric G., Hitchings MD., Quesada A., Porrero MC., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Gutierrez-Fernandez J., Dominguez L. and Sheppard SK.

November 29th, 2019

A Summer Mortality Outbreak of Lactococcosis by Lactococcus garvieae in a Raceway System Affecting Farmed Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

Animals 9(12):1043.

     Lactococcosis is a fish disease of major concern in Mediterranean countries caused by Lactococcus garvieae. The most susceptible species is the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), suffering acute disease associated with elevated mortalities compared to other fish species. References reported that other salmonids are also susceptible to the disease, but no mortality outbreak has been described to date. The aim of this study was to present a mortality outbreak that occurred in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) farmed in northwestern Italy during the summer of 2018. Fish exhibited clinical signs, such as exophthalmos, diffused hemorrhages localized in the ocular zone, hemorrhagic enteritis, and enlarged spleen. L. garvieae was isolated in a… Leer más

Pastorino P., Vela AI., Colussi S., Cavazza G., Menconi V., Mugetti D., Righetti M., Barbero R., Zuccaro G., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Dondo A., Acutis PL. and Prearo M.

November 27th, 2019

Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes From Children Younger Than 5 Years in Kano State, Nigeria

Frontiers In Public Health 7:348.

     Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is one of the leading causes of gastrointestinal disorders worldwide and an important public health challenge. DEC infection is often underdiagnosed during routine microbiological analysis, especially in resource constrained settings; the use of molecular tests could however help to determine the distribution of DEC and its clinical significance. Here, a study to assess the prevalence of DEC in clinical samples from patients <5 years attending three hospitals in Kano state, Nigeria, was carried out. Samples from 400 patients and 50 controls were collected and screened for E. coli. Compatible colonies from 248 individuals (215 patients and 33 controls) were characterized using biochemical test, a set of r… Leer más

Saka KH., Dabo NT., Muhammad B., Garcia-Soto S., Ugarte-Ruiz M. and Alvarez J..

November 9th, 2019

Effects on Intestinal Mucosal Morphology, Productive Parameters and Microbiota Composition after Supplementation with Fermented Defatted Alperujo (FDA) in Laying Hens

Antibiotics 8(4):E215.

     The olive oil sector is currently adapting its traditional function to also become a supplier of high-value by-products that possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the fermented defatted alperujo (FDA) on the intestinal health of laying hens. The morphology of the duodenal and cecal mucosa, the composition of the intestinal
microbiota and the productivity of a batch of laying hens were evaluated after FDA supplementation. At early life stages, significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed in duodenal villi height and in crypt depth of both the duodenum and the cecum in the FDA-supplemented group, indicating improved intestinal health in this group. Microbiota… Leer más

Rebollada A., Barcena C., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Porras N., Mayoral-Alegre F., Tome-Sanchez I., Dominguez L. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

November 7th, 2019

Coffee Silverskin Extract: Nutritional Value, Safety and Effect on Key Biological Functions

Nutrients 11(11):2693.

     This study aimed to complete the scientific basis for the validation of a coffee silverskin extract (CSE) as a novel food ingredient according to European legislation. Nutritional value, safety, effects on biochemical biomarkers and excretion of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in vivo of CSE were assessed. Proteins, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, fiber, simple sugars and micronutrients were analyzed. For the first time, toxicological and physiological effects were evaluated in vivo by a repeated-dose study in healthy Wistar rats. Hormone secretion, antioxidant (enzymatic and no-enzymatic) and anti-inflammatory biomarkers, and dietary fiber fermentability of CSE (analysis of SCFAs in feces) were studied in biological samples. This unique res… Leer más

Iriondo-Dehond A., Rios MB., Herrera T., Rodriguez-Bertos A., Nunez F., San Andres MI., Sanchez-Fortun S. and del Castillo MD.

November 1st, 2019

Serological, molecular and hematological diagnosis in horses with clinical suspicion of equine piroplasmosis: pooling strengths

Veterinary Parasitology 275:108928.

     Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a tick-borne protozoan disease caused by Theileria equi and/or Babesia caballi. Clinical signs (fever, pale mucosal membranes, jaundice), anemia and hyperbilirubinemia have been associated with the disease. EP is widespread, has a significant economic impact on the equine industry and remains endemic in Spain. This study was carried out with samples belonging to 140 horses residing in Spain and showing common clinical signs of EP. A blood smear microscopic examination and a comparison between the different results obtained by competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA), real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and hematological and biochemical (direct and total bilirubin) screening were conducted. EP… Leer más

Camino E., Dorrego-Rodriguez A., Carvajal KA., Buendia A., de Juan L., Dominguez L. and Cruz F..

November 1st, 2019

A pathological study of Leishmania infantum natural infection in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis)

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 66(6):2474-2481.

     In this study, we describe the pathology of Leishmania infantum infection in naturally infected wild Leporidae and compare diagnosis of infection using histopathology, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and quantitative real‐time PCR (qPCR). Tissues were analysed from 52 European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and 7 Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis) from the Community of Madrid (Spain). Our results show that L. infantum infection is associated with only minimal histopathological lesions and that L. infantum amastigotes can be detected by DFA assay in all tissues types tested, including skin. These results were confirmed by qPCR on fresh frozen tissues in 13% of rabbits and 100% of hares.… Leer más

Ortega-García MV., Salguero FJ., Rodriguez-Bertos A., Moreno I., Garcia N., Garcia-Seco T., Torre G., Dominguez L. and Dominguez M.

October 30th, 2019

Free-Ranging Pig and Wild Boar Interactions in an Endemic Area of African Swine Fever

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 6:376.

     African swine fever virus (ASFV) is spreading throughout Eurasia and there is no vaccine nor treatment available, so the control is based on the implementation of strict sanitary measures. These measures include depopulation of infected and in-contact animals and export restrictions, which can lead to important economic losses, making currently African swine fever (ASF) the greatest threat to the global swine industry. ASF has been endemic on the island of Sardinia since 1978, the longest persistence of anywhere in Eurasia. In Sardinia, eradication programs have failed, in large part due to the lack of farm professionalism, the high density of wild boar and the presence of non-registered domestic pigs (free-ranging pigs). In order to clarif… Leer más

Cadenas-Fernández E., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Pintore A., Denurra D., Cherchi M., Jurado C., Vicente J. and Barasona JA..

October 24th, 2019

Role of Wild Boar in the Spread of Classical Swine Fever in Japan

Pathogens 8(4):206.

     Since September 2018, nearly 900 notifications of classical swine fever (CSF) have been reported in Gifu Prefecture (Japan) affecting domestic pig and wild boar by the end of August 2019. To determine the epidemiological characteristics of its spread, a spatio-temporal analysis was performed using actual field data on the current epidemic. The spatial study, based on standard deviational ellipses of official CSF notifications, showed that the disease likely spread to the northeast part of the prefecture. A maximum significant spatial association estimated between CSF notifications was 23 km by the multi-distance spatial cluster analysis. A space-time permutation analysis identified two significant clusters with an approximate radius of 12 a… Leer más

Ito S., Jurado C., Bosch J., Ito M., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Isoda N. and Sakoda AY.

October 15th, 2019

Successful Host Adaptation of IncK2 Plasmids

Frontiers In Microbiology 10:2384.

     The IncK plasmid group can be divided into two separate lineages named IncK1 and IncK2. IncK2 is found predominantly in poultry while IncK1 was reported in various mammals, including animals and humans. The physiological basis of this distinction is not known. In this manuscript we examined fitness cost of IncK1 and IncK2 plasmids at 37 and 42°C, which resembles mammalian and chicken body temperatures, respectively. We analyzed conjugation frequency, plasmid copy number and plasmid fitness cost in direct competition. Additionally, we measured levels of σ-32 in Escherichia coli carrying either wild type or conjugation-deficient IncK plasmids. The results show that IncK2 plasmids have a higher conjugation frequency and lower copy number … Leer más

Rozwandowicz M., Brouwer MSM., Mughini-Gras L., Wagenaar J., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Mevius DJ. and Hordijk J.

October 15th, 2019

Evaluation of the immunogenicity and efficacy of BCG and MTBVAC vaccines using a natural transmission model of tuberculosis

Veterinary Research 50(1):82.

     Effective vaccines against tuberculosis (TB) are needed in order to prevent TB transmission in human and animal populations. Evaluation of TB vaccines may be facilitated by using reliable animal models that mimic host pathophysiology and natural transmission of the disease as closely as possible. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of two attenuated vaccines, BCG and MTBVAC, after each was given to 17 goats (2 months old) and then exposed for 9 months to goats infected with M. caprae. In general, MTBVAC-vaccinated goats showed higher interferon-gamma release than BCG vaccinated goats in response to bovine protein purified derivative and ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigens and the response was significantly higher than that observ… Leer más

Roy A., Tome-Sanchez I., Romero B., Lorente-Leal V., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Dominguez M., Martin C., Aguilo N., Puentes E., Rodriguez E., de Juan L., Risalde MA., Gortazar C., Dominguez L. and Bezos J..

October 8th, 2019

Risk of African swine fever virus introduction into the United States through smuggling of pork in air passenger luggage

Scientific Reports 9(1):14423.

     African swine fever causes substantial economic losses in the swine industry in affected countries. Traditionally confined to Africa with only occasional incursions into other regions, ASF began spreading into Caucasian countries and Eastern Europe in 2007, followed by Western Europe and Asia in 2018. Such a dramatic change in the global epidemiology of ASF has resulted in concerns that the disease may continue to spread into disease-free regions such as the US. In this study, we estimated the risk of introduction of ASF virus into the US through smuggling of pork in air passenger luggage. Results suggest that the mean risk of ASFV introduction into the US via this route has increased by 183.33% from the risk estimated before the disease ha… Leer más

Jurado C., Mur L., Perez-Aguirreburualde MS., Cadenas-Fernández E., Martinez-Lopez B., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. and Perez AM.

October 1st, 2019

Tuberculosis vaccination sequence effect on protection in wild boar

Comparative Immunology, Microbiology And Infectious Diseases 66:101329.

     The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a reservoir for tuberculosis (TB) in which vaccination is a valuable tool for control. We evaluated the protection and immune response achieved by homologous and heterologous regimes administering BCG and heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (IV). Twenty-one wild boar piglets were randomly allocated in five groups: Control, homologous BCG, homologous IV, heterologous IV-BCG, heterologous BCG-IV. Significant 67% and 66% total lesion score reductions were detected in homologous IV (IVx2) and heterologous IV-BCG groups when compared with Control group (F4,16 = 6.393, p = 0.003; Bonferroni Control vs IVx2 p = 0.026, Tukey Control vs IV-BCG p = 0.021). No sign… Leer más

Diez-Delgado I., Sevilla IA., Garrido JM., Romero B., Geijo MV., Dominguez L., Juste RA., Aranaz A., de la Fuente J. and Gortazar C.

October 1st, 2019

Risk of acquisition of human diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli virulence genes in intercontinental travellers: a prospective, multi-centre study Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease

Travel Medicine And Infectious Disease 31:101362.

We studied the geographic distribution of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli virulence genes (DEC VGs) acquisition in travellers and investigated if they acquired highly virulent EAEC/STEC hybrid strains.
From the prospective, multicentre COMBAT study among 2,001 Dutch travellers, a subset of 491 travellers was were selected based on travel destination to 7 subregions. Faecal samples taken directly before and after travel were screened for nine DEC VGs with real-time PCR. Incidence proportions and rates were calculated for each gene and subregion.
479 travellers were analysed. 21.8% acquired aggR (EAEC), with the highest acquisition rates in Northern and Western Africa and 15.3% … Leer más

Van Hattem JM., Cabal A., Arcilla MS., Alvarez J., de Jong MD., Melles DC., Penders J., COMBAT Consortium., Gortazar C. and Schultsz C.

September 26th, 2019

Mapping changes in the spatiotemporal distribution of lumpy skin disease virus

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 66(5):2045-2057.

     Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is an infectious disease of cattle transmitted by arthropod vectors which results in substantial economic losses due to impact on production efficiency and profitability, and represents an emerging threat to international trade of livestock products and live animals. Since 2015, the disease has spread into the Northern Hemisphere including Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation and the Balkans. The rapid expansion of LSDV in those regions represented the emergence of the virus in more temperate regions than those in which LSDV traditionally occurred. The goal of this study was to assess the risk for further LSDV spread through the a) analysis of environmental factors conducive for LSDV, and b) estimat… Leer más

Machado G., Korennoy FI., Alvarez J., Picasso C., Perez AM. and VanderWaal K.

September 24th, 2019

Emergent subtype of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in wild boar in Spain

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 66(5):1803-1808.

     Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is considered the main wildlife reservoir of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the circulation of HEV in free-ranging wild boar in the Doñana National Park (DNP), Spain. Blood samples were collected from 99 wild boar in the DNP during 2015. Sera were analyzed in parallel using indirect ELISA and real-time RT-PCR. A total of 57 of the 99 tested animals (57.6%; 95%CI: 47.8-67.3%) had anti-HEV antibodies, indicating that this virus is widespread in wild boar in the DNP. HEV RNA was detected in one animal and phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence isolated belonged to subtype 3r. The results suggest a potential risk of zoonotic transmission of this novel HEV-3 subtyp… Leer más

Caballero-Gomez J., Jiménez-Ruiz S., Lopez-Lopez P., Vicente J., Risalde MA., Cano-Terriza D., Frias M., Barasona JA., Rivero A., Garcia-Bocanegra I. and Rivero-Juarez A.

September 11st, 2019

Carbapenemase-producing Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from healthy pigs associated with colistin use in Spain

Antibiotics 8(3):146.

     Carbapenems are considered last-resort antimicrobials, especially for treating infections involving multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In recent years, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria have become widespread in hospitals, community settings, and the environment, reducing the range of effective therapeutic alternatives. The use of colistin to treat infection caused by these multi-drug bacteria may favour the selection and persistence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. In this study, it is described, for the first time to our knowledge, a carbapenemase-producing isolate of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from healthy pigs in Spain. The isolate we report was recovered during a … Leer más

Miguela-Villoldo P., Hernandez M., Moreno MA., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., Quesada A., Dominguez L. and Ugarte-Ruiz M..

September 4th, 2019

Risk of Introduction of Infectious Animal Diseases for Europe Based on the Health Situation of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 293(6):1-13.

     The current growth of the human population, the intensification of animal production, climate change or globalization favors an increase in the transmission of infectious diseases. Risk analysis is the tool that allows the identification of the factors involved in the introduction and the spread of infectious diseases. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the risk of entry of animal infectious zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases from North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula to countries of the European Union. A probabilistic formulation has been developed to obtain the probabilities of introduction of diseases associated with each possible route of entry in the European Union. The results show that, among the infectious diseases anal… Leer más

Masso-Sagues E., Fernandez-Carrion E. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

September 1st, 2019

Does pollen diversity influence honey bee colony health?

Spanish Journal Of Agricultural Research 17(3):e0504.

     Aim of study: Colony losses of the western honey bee Apis mellifera have increased alarmingly in recent years. These losses have been attributed to nutritional deficiency, environmental conditions, viral infection and the global presence of the ectoparasite mite Varroa destructor. Ensuring pollen availability may improve colony health, so the present study aimed to examine whether the diversity of pollen collected by the colony as well as landscape characteristics of apiaries influence colony health.
Area of study: Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain).
Material and methods: Colonies at eight apiaries were sampled in late summer to determine colony strength, presence of varroa and load of DWV. Pollen was collected during six… Leer más

Barroso-Arevalo S., Vicente-Rubiano M., Ruiz JA., Bentabol A. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

September 1st, 2019

Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Freshwater Trout Farms in a Watershed in Chile

Journal Of Environmental Quality 48(5):1462-1471.

     Point sources such as wastewater treatment plants, terrestrial agriculture, and aquaculture may release antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into aquatic ecosystems. However, there is a lack of quantitative studies attributing environmental ARG abundance to specific sources. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of freshwater trout farms in the release and dissemination of ARGs into the environment. Sediment samples upstream and downstream from five rainbow trout farms were collected over time in southern Chile. A microfluidic quantitative polymerase chain reaction approach was used to quantify an ARG array covering different mechanisms of resistance, and data were analyzed usi… Leer más

Bueno I., Travis D., Gonzalez-Rocha G., Alvarez J., Lima C., Garcia-Benitez C., Phelps NBD., Wass B., Johnson TJ., Zhang Q., Ishii S. and Singer RS.

August 30th, 2019

Prevalence of Beta-Lactam and Quinolone/Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae From Dogs in France and Spain-Characterization of ESBL/pAmpC Isolates, Genes, and Conjugative Plasmids

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 279(6):1-10.

     Quantitative data on fecal shedding of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are crucial to assess the risk of transmission from dogs to humans. Our first objective was to investigate the prevalence of quinolone/fluoroquinolone-resistant and beta-lactam-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in dogs in France and Spain. Due to the particular concern about possible transmission of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant isolates from dogs to their owners, we characterized the ESBL/pAmpC producers collected from dogs. Rectal swabs from 188 dogs, without signs of diarrhea and that had not received antimicrobials for 4 weeks before the study, were quantified for total and resistant Enterobacteriaceae on selective media alone or containing relevant ant… Leer más

Dupouy V., Abdelli M., Moyano G., Arpailange N., Bibbal D., Cadiergues MC., Lopez-Pulin D., Sayah-Jeanne S., de Gunzburg J., Saint-Lu N., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Andremont A. and Bousquet-Melou A.

August 13rd, 2019

Modeling the Accuracy of Two in-vitro Bovine Tuberculosis Tests Using a Bayesian Approach

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 6:261.

     Accuracy of new or alternative diagnostic tests is typically estimated in relation to a well-standardized reference test referred to as a gold standard. However, for bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a chronic disease of cattle, affecting animal and public health, no reliable gold standard is available. In this context, latent-class models implemented using a Bayesian approach can help to assess the accuracy of diagnostic tests incorporating previous knowledge on test performance and disease prevalence. In Uruguay, bTB-prevalence has increased in the past decades partially because of the limited accuracy of the diagnostic strategy in place, based on intradermal testing (caudal fold test, CFT, for screening and comparative cervical test, CCT, for c… Leer más

Picasso C., Perez AM., Gil A., Nunez A., Salaberry X., Suanses A. and Alvarez J..

July 25th, 2019

The bla NDM-1 carrying IncA/C2 plasmid underlies structural alterations and cointegrate formation in vivo

Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy 63(8):e00380-19.

     In 2012, a carbapenemase-producing Salmonella (S.) Corvallis carrying a bla NDM-1 multi-resistance IncA/C2 plasmid, apart from IncHI2 and ColE-like plasmids, was detected in a wild bird in Germany. In recent broiler chicken infection study, we observed transfer of this bla NDM-1-carrying IncA/C2 plasmid to other Enterobacteriaceae Here, we focused on the stability of this plasmid and gained insight into type and frequency of its structural alterations after an in vivo passage in a broiler infection study… Leer más

Hadziabdic S., Fischer J., Borowiak M., Malorny B., Juraschek K., Kasbohrer A., Guerra B., Deneke C., Gonzalez-Zorn B. and Szabo I.

July 5th, 2019

Circulation of a novel strain of dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) in stranded cetaceans in the Mediterranean Sea

Scientific Reports 9(1):9792.

     Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has been responsible for several outbreaks of systemic infection and has resulted in cetacean strandings in the Mediterranean. In August-October 2016, seven striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded on the Sicilian coastline (Italy) tested positive for DMV. Tissue samples from brain, lung, pulmonary lymph nodes, heart, spleen, liver, stomach, intestine, kidneys and urinary bladder, as well as blowhole swabs, were collected during necropsy for molecular diagnostics and pathology studies. Extracted tissue RNA was screened for DMV by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Some tissues exhibited microscopic lesions that were consistent with DMV infection on histopathological and immu… Leer más

Mira F., Rubio-Guerri C., Purpari G., Puleio R., Caracappa G., Gucciardi F., Russoto L., Ruggero-Loria G. and Guercio A.

July 4th, 2019

Nucleotide sequence variations may be associated with virulence of deformed wing virus

Apidologie 50:482-496.

     Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) are key players in crop pollination and in the maintenance of global biodiversity. Their viability is threatened by Varroa destructor, which acts as a vector of the deformed wing virus (DWV). Several genetic DWV variants have been reported, but it is unclear whether their virulence differs. We examined the prevalence of V. destructor and DWV as well as bee health in two colonies over 21 months and then characterizing DWV variants from each colony using phylogenetics. Colony H showed no signs of disease or mortality, and DWV sequence from this colony clustered with VDV/DWV-B sequences previously reported in healthy colonies. Colony W showed DWV symptoms, and DWV sequence clustered with DWV-A sequences prev… Leer más

Barroso-Arevalo S., Vicente-Rubiano M., Molero F., Puerta F. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

July 1st, 2019

Effect of litter aggregation and pooling on detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus in piglet processing fluids

Journal Of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 31(4):625-628.

     A sampling technique has been validated to monitor porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 (PRRSV-2) using the serosanguinous exudate known as processing fluids (PFs) that accumulate from tissues obtained during tail docking and castration. PFs are an aggregate sample of large numbers of piglets and litters. However, little is known about the effect of litter aggregation on the ability of PCR to correctly classify an aggregated PF sample as positive. We evaluated both the effect of litter aggregation and of PF pooling on PCR detection. We estimated that aggregation of at least 50 litters was possible when a pig with a Ct value of ~22 was present in the sample, and aggregation of up to 40 litters was possible when there was a s… Leer más

Vilalta C., Baker J., Sanhueza J., Murray D., Sponheim A., Alvarez J., Sylvia F., Polson D., Torremorell M., Corzo C. and Morrison RB.

July 1st, 2019

Seroprevalence of Brucella canis antibodies in dogs entering a Minnesota humane society, Minnesota, 2016-2017

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 168:90-94.

     Background: Canine brucellosis, caused by the bacterium Brucella canis, is a zoonotic and largely reproductive disease of dogs. The disease is a recognized problem in canine breeding populations, and the risk to individuals assisting with birthing is well described. Prior to 2015, all cases of canine brucellosis reported to the Minnesota Board of Animal Health were in dogs used for breeding. In 2015, canine brucellosis was identified in eight Minnesota rescue dogs, all originating from specific geographic areas in South Dakota. Our objective was to measure the seroprevalence of B. canis in stray and previously owned dogs entering a large Minnesota animal rescue organization to determine if our observations represented a localized or general… Leer más

Whitten T., Brayshaw G., Patnayak D., Alvarez J., Larson CM., Root-Kustritz M., Holzbauer SM., Torrison J. and Scheftel J.

July 1st, 2019

The possible route of introduction of bluetongue virus serotype 3 into Sicily by windborne transportation of infected Culicoides spp

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 66(4):1665-1673.

     In October 2017, the first outbreak of bluetongue virus serotype 3 (BTV-3) began in Italy, specifically in western Sicily. The route of entrance remains unclear, although since 2016 the same strain had been circulating only 150 km away, on the Tunisian peninsula of Cape Bon. The present analysis assessed the feasibility that wind could have carried BTV-3-infected Culicoides spp. from Tunisia to Sicily. An advection-deposition-survival (ADS) model was used to estimate when and where Culicoides spp. were likely to be introduced prior to the first BTV-3 report in Italy. Additionally, the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to support ADS outputs. The modelling suggests that during September 2017, st… Leer más

Aguilar-Vega C., Fernandez-Carrion E. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

July 1st, 2019

Potentially human-virulent Vibrio vulnificus isolates from diseased great pompano (Trachinotus goodei)

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 66(4):1765-1770.

     Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for the majority of seafood-associated deaths worldwide and is also a relevant fish pathogen for the aquaculture industry. In addition to infections in aquatic livestock, Vibrio vulnificus also represents a risk to aquarium animals. For the first time, this work describes an important mortality outbreak in Trachinotus goodei in a zoo aquarium, with the isolation of Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) from the internal organs of the diseased fish. The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS, serotyped and characterized by PFGE. Although the isolates from great pompanos did not belong to pathovar piscis (formerly biotype 2) or to any of the fish-related serovars, they all had identical phen… Leer más

Gibello A., Vela AI., Martinez-Nevado E., Rodriguez-Bertos A., Casamayor A., Garcia J., Dominguez L., Montoto P., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF. and Amaro C.

June 24th, 2019

Host Richness Increases Tuberculosis Disease Risk in Game-Managed Areas

Microorganisms 7(6):182.

     Current scientific debate addresses whether species richness in animal communities may negatively moderate pathogen transmission and disease outcome (dilution effect), or to the contrary, if disease emergence benefits from more diverse community assemblages (amplification effect). The result may not depend exclusively on patterns of host species biodiversity but may depend on the specific composition of reservoir hosts and vectors, and their ecology. Host–pathogen interactions have shaped variations in parasite virulence, transmissibility and specificity. In the same way the importance of factors related to host exposure or to life history trade-offs are expected to vary. In this study, we demonstrate that ungulate host species richness cor… Leer más

Barasona JA., Gortazar C., de la Fuente J. and Vicente J.

June 18th, 2019

Weaned piglets: another factor to be considered for the control of Salmonella infection in breeding pig farms

Veterinary Research 50(1):45.

     Field studies on Salmonella infection in suckling piglets are scarce due to the intrinsic difficulties of collecting proper samples (i.e. tonsils or mesenteric lymph nodes), and most of them rely on the analysis of rectal swabs that limit their accuracy. We used 495 slaughtered 4-weeks-old male piglets intended for human consumption from 5 Salmonella-seropositive breeding farms to collect gastrointestinal packages and perform a thorough detection of Salmonella on mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal content. The overall prevalence of both infection and shedding was high (≈ 36%) indicating that piglets played an active role in Salmonella maintenance in the farms. Major serotypes found in piglets included 4,[5],12:i: (35.4%), Ris… Leer más

Casanova-Higes A., Marin-Alcala CM., Andres-Barranco S., Cebollada-Solanas A., Alvarez J. and Mainar-Jaime RC.

June 14th, 2019

High Load of Deformed Wing Virus and Varroa destructor Infestation Are Related to Weakness of Honey Bee Colonies in Southern Spain

Frontiers In Microbiology 10:1331.

     Many factors, including pathogens, contribute to the continuing losses of colonies of the honey bee Apis mellifera, which has led to steady population decline. In particular, colony losses have been linked to deformed wing virus (DWV) and the Varroa destructor mite. To clarify the potential role of these two pathogens in honey bee colony weakening and loss, we sampled colonies in southern Spain during a 21-month period and analyzed the samples for loads of four viruses and varroa. Loads of DWV and black queen cell virus as well as varroa infestation negatively correlated with colony vigor as measured using the subjective colony strength method. Logistic regression identified varroa and DWV as the main factors involved in colony weakening. O… Leer más

Barroso-Arevalo S., Fernandez-Carrion E., Goyache J., Molero F., Puerta F. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

June 1st, 2019

Diagnostic interaction between bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and Johne`sdisease in bTB highly prevalent dairy farms of Uruguay

Veterinary And Animal Science 7:100052.

     The consolidation of the dairy industry, with increase in sizes, density and productivity of the herds, was associated to unprecedented bovine tuberculosis (bTB) prevalence levels in dairy herds in Uruguay, where Johne`s disease (JD), another mycobacterial disease, is also prevalent. Here, we aimed to characterize the association between bTB- and JD-diagnostic results in two heavily bTB- and JD-coinfected dairy herds. Results from bTB-intradermal tests and JD-ELISA in 686 cows indicated a significantly (P < 0.001) higher frequency of bTB-positive animals in the JD-positive population, in which a significantly lower agreement between the caudal and cervical comparative intradermal tests was observed, compared to the JD-negative population. T… Leer más

Picasso-Risso C., Gil A., Nunez A., Suanes A., Macchi V., Salaberry X., Alvarez J. and Perez AM.

May 29th, 2019

Estimating day range from camera-trap data: the animals’ behaviour as a key parameter

Journal Of Zoology 309(3):182-190.

     Day range (DR), the distance travelled by an individual during the day, is an important metric in movement ecology that recently gained interest by its relevance for estimating population density through the random encounter model (REM). Traditionally, DR has been estimated using GPS technology and considering raw straight-line distances between consecutive locations, which is an underestimation of the true path distance. In this work, we tested the accuracy of a new approach based on camera-trap data for the estimation of DR taking into account the animals’ behaviour. For this purpose, we considered wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a model species. We tagged 18 individuals with telemetry devices and then monitored the population with camera-traps… Leer más

Palencia P., Vicente J., Barroso P., Barasona JA., Soriguer RC. and Acevedo P.

May 28th, 2019

Minigene Splicing Assays Identify 12 Spliceogenic Variants of BRCA2 Exons 14 and 15

Frontiers In Genetics 10:503.

     A relevant fraction of BRCA2 variants is associated with splicing alterations and with an increased risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). In this work, we have carried out a thorough study of variants from BRCA2 exons 14 and 15 reported at mutation databases. A total of 294 variants from exons 14 and 15 and flanking intronic sequences were analyzed with the online splicing tools NNSplice and Human Splicing Finder. Fifty-three out of these 294 variants were selected as candidate splicing variants. All variants but one, were introduced into the minigene MGBR2_ex14-20 (with exons 14-20) by site-directed mutagenesis and assayed in MCF-7 cells. Twelve of the remaining 52 variants (23.1%) impaired splicing at different degrees, yie… Leer más

Fraile-Bethencourt E., Valenzuela-Palomo A., Diez-Gomez B., Caloca MJ., Gomez S. and Velasco EA.

May 16th, 2019

Comparison of spatiotemporal patterns of historic natural Anthrax outbreaks in Minnesota and Kazakhstan

PLoS ONE 14(5):e0217144.

     Disease spread in populations is a consequence of the interaction between host, pathogen, and environment, i.e. the epidemiological triad. Yet the influences of each triad component may vary dramatically for different settings. Comparison of environmental, demographic, socio-economic, and historical backgrounds may support tailoring site-specific control measures. Because of the long-term survival of Bacillus anthracis, Anthrax is a suitable example for studying the influence of triad components in different endemic settings. We compared the spatiotemporal patterns of historic animal Anthrax records in two endemic areas, located at northern latitudes in the western and eastern hemispheres. Our goal was to compare the spatiotemporal patterns… Leer más

Kanankege KST., Abdrakhmanov SK., Alvarez J., Glaser L., Bender JB., Mukhanbetkaliyev YY., Korennoy FI., Kadyrov AS., Abdrakhmanova AS. and Perez AM.

May 3rd, 2019

Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies to eight human complement components: analysis of reactivity with orthologs of nine mammalian genera

Comparative Immunology, Microbiology And Infectious Diseases 62:7-12.

To study complement function in mammalian leishmanioses, we developed mouse monoclonal antibodies to the human complement system components C1q, C4, factor D, factor H, factor B, properdin, C5 and C9. Antibody specificity was determined by indirect and capture ELISA and by Western blot. In flow cytometry analysis, seven antibodies recognized the cognate component on human serum-opsonized Leishmania promastigotes. Antibody reactivity was screened against promastigotes opsonized with sera of nine mammalian genera: pig, guinea pig, goat, rabbit, cat, dog, hamster, jird and rat. No antibody recognized jird epitopes on promastigotes. Anti-C4, -properdin, and -C5b reacted with the orthologous protein of all other mammals tested ex… Leer más

Monedero M., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Moreno I., Martin AB., Macias RIR., Torano A. and Dominguez M.

May 2nd, 2019

Spleen and head kidney differential gene expression patterns in trout infected with Lactococcus garvieae correlate with spleen granulomas

Veterinary Research 50(1):32.

     Lactococcus garvieae is a significant pathogen in aquaculture with a potential zoonotic risk. To begin to characterize the late immune response of trout to lactococcosis, we selected infected individuals showing clinical signs of lactococcosis. At the time lactococcosis clinical signs appeared, infection by L. garvieae induced a robust inflammatory response in the spleen of rainbow trout, which correlated with abundant granulomatous lesions. The response in kidney goes in parallel with that of spleen, and most of the gene regulations are similar in both organs. A correlation existed between the early inflammatory granulomas in spleen (containing macrophages with internalized L. garvieae) and up-regulated gene sets, which defined the presenc… Leer más

Castro R., Coll J., Blanco MDM., Rodriguez-Bertos A., Jouneau L., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF. and Gibello A.

May 1st, 2019

Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characterization of Trueperella pyogenes isolates from pigs reared under intensive and extensive farming practices

Veterinary Microbiology 232:89-95.

     Trueperella pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen associated with a variety of diseases and responsible for important economic losses for pig production. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) typing analysis were used to determine the MIC distribution and to genetically characterize a total of 180 T. pyogenes isolates obtained from slaughtered pigs reared under intensive (TpIN, n = 89) and extensive (TpEX, n = 91) farming practices. Low MIC90 values for penicillin and amoxicillin (0.008 and 0.06 μg/ml, respectively), ceftiofur, gentamicin and enrofloxacin (1 μg/ml, respectively) were obtained, so they could be of choice for the empiric treatment of T.… Leer más

Galan-Relaño A., Gomez-Gascon L., Luque I., Barrero-Dominguez B., Casamayor A., Cardoso-Toset F., Vela AI., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF. and Tarradas C.

May 1st, 2019

Surveillance and control of African Swine Fever in free-ranging pigs in Sardinia

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 66(3):1114-1119.

     African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease, caused by the ASF virus (ASFV), which is a DNA virus belonging to the family Asfarviridae, genus Asfivirus. This disease has gained importance in the last decade after its spread in several countries in Eastern and Central Europe, and more recently, in China. Despite the efforts made to eradicate it, ASF is still present on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia (Italy) and has been since 1978. ASF risk factors on the island have been analysed in previous studies; the role of free-ranging pigs in virus persistence has been suggested, but has not been fully elucidated. The most recent eradication plan provides more stringent measures to combat free-ranging pigs and any kind of illeg… Leer más

Laddomada A., Rolesu S., Loi F., Cappai S., Oggiano A., Madrau MP., Sanna ML., Pilo G., Bandino E., Brundu D., Cherchi S., Masala S., Marongiu D., Bitti G., Desini P., Floris V., Mundula L., Carboni G., Pittau M., Feliziani F., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Jurado C., Guberti V., Chessa M., Muzzeddu M., Sardo D., Silvio B., Mulas D., Salis G., Zinzula P., Piredda S., De Martini A. and Sgarangella F.

April 26th, 2019

First Oral Vaccination of Eurasian Wild Boar Against African Swine Fever Virus Genotype II

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 6(137):1-10.

     African swine fever (ASF), the most significant threat to the pig industry worldwide, has spread to more than 55 countries on three continents, and it affects more than 77% of the world swine population. In the European Union, wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the most severely affected host. The main reasons for the unprecedented and constant spread of ASF in Europe are the trade activities, the continuous movement of infected-wild boar populations among regions and the lack of vaccine to prevent ASF infection. In this study, we demonstrate that oral immunization of wild boar with a non-hemadsorbing, attenuated ASF virus of genotype II isolated in Latvia in 2017 (Lv17/WB/Rie1) conferred 92% protection against challenge with a virulent ASF virus is… Leer más

Barasona JA., Gallardo C., Cadenas-Fernández E., Jurado C., Rivera B., Rodriguez-Bertos A., Arias M. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

April 1st, 2019

Pasteurella multocida isolates associated with ovine pneumonia are toxigenic

Veterinary Microbiology 232:40-73.

     The P. multocida toxin (PMT), a dermonecrotic protein encoded by the toxA gene, is the major virulence factor of capsular type D P. multocida strains causing progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) in pigs. A high frequency of P. multocida isolates harboring the toxA gene has been found among ovine pneumonic isolates, although the ability of these isolates to express PMT has never been examined. In this study we have investigated the ability of ovine toxA+ P. multocida isolates (n = 57) to express a functional toxin by detection of PMT toxin antigen using an ELISA test and its cytopathic effect in a Vero cell assay. PMT antigen was expressed in the great majority (54/57; 94.7%) of toxA+ isolates. Moreover, the 100% toxA+ ovine isola… Leer más

Cid D., Garcia-Alvarez A., Dominguez L., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF. and Vela AI..

April 1st, 2019

National colistin sales versus colistin resistance in Spanish pig production

Research In Veterinary Science 123:141-143.

     Colistin resistance was associated with infrequent spontaneous mutations that reduce bacterial fitness until 2015, when the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was discovered in China (Liu et al., 2016). The mcr-1 gene was reported for the first time in Southern Europe in 2016 in nine strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica from farm animals (poultry and pigs) (Quesada et al., 2016). Currently, eight different mcr genes have been reported (mcr-1 to 8) (Garcia et al., 2018) (Yang et al., 2018) (Wang et al., 2018). Nevertheless, only mcr-1, 3, and 4 have been found in Spain (Hernandez et al., 2017) (Quesada et al., 2016) (Carattoli et al., 2017).

Food-producing animals, particularly pigs, have been shown… Leer más

Miguela-Villoldo P., Hernandez M., Moreno MA., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., Quesada A., Dominguez L. and Ugarte-Ruiz M..

March 27th, 2019

Circulation of plasmids harboring resistance genes to quinolones and/or extended-spectrum cephalosporins in multiple Salmonella enterica serotypes from swine in the United States

Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy 63(4):e02602-18 .

     Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) poses a major public-health risk worldwide that is amplified by the existence of antimicrobial resistant strains, especially to quinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). Little is known on the dissemination of plasmids harboring the acquired genetic determinants that confer resistance to these antimicrobials across NTS serotypes from livestock in the United States.NTS isolates (n=183) from U.S. swine clinical cases retrieved during 2014-2016 were selected for sequencing based on their phenotypic resistance to enrofloxacin (quinolone) or ceftiofur (3rd-generation cephalosporin). De-novo assemblies were used to identify chromosomal mutations and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes (AARGs… Leer más

Elnekave E., Hong SL., Lim S., Hayer SS., Boxrud D., Taylor AJ., Lappi V., Noves N., Johnson TJ., Rovira A., Davies P., Perez AM. and Alvarez J..

March 4th, 2019

Immune related genes as markers for monitoring health status of honey bee colonies

BMC Veterinary Research 15(1):72.

Honey bee population decline threatens the beekeeping sector, agriculture and global biodiversity. Early detection of colony mortality may facilitate rapid interventions to contain and prevent mortality spread. Among others, deformed wing virus (DWV) is capable of inducing colony losses, especially when combined with Varroa destructor mite. Since the bee immune system plays a crucial role in ensuring that bees are able to face these pathogens, we explored whether expression of immune genes could serve as biomarkers of colony health.
Herein, we describe a preliminary immunological marker composed of two immune genes (relish and defensin), which provide insight on honey bee antiviral defense mechanism. … Leer más

Barroso-Arevalo S., Vicente-Rubiano M., Puerta F., Molero F. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

March 4th, 2019

Validation of a Real-Time PCR for the Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Members in Bovine Tissue Samples

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 6(61):1-9.

     Although the post-mortem diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis is mainly achieved through microbiological culture, the development of other techniques to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) members directly from tissue samples has been pursued. The present study describes the development, optimization and validation of a Real-Time PCR based on the mpb70 gene to detect MTBC members in clinical tissue samples from cattle. Specific primers and a hybridization probe were used to amplify MTBC-specific sequences in order to avoid cross-reaction with non-MTBC species. An Internal Amplification Control (IAC) was included in order to assess the presence of PCR inhibitors in the samples. The PCR was optimized to achieve maximum efficiency, an… Leer más

Lorente-Leal V., Liandris E., Castellanos E., Bezos J., Dominguez L., de Juan L. and Romero B..

March 1st, 2019

Specificity of serological test for detection of tuberculosis in cattle, goats, sheep and pigs under different epidemiological situations

BMC Veterinary Research 15(1):70.

Serum antibody detection has potential as a complementary diagnostic tool in animal tuberculosis (TB) control, particularly in multi-host systems. The objective of the present study was to assess the specificity (Sp) of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the new multiprotein complex P22 for the detection of specific antibodies against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in the four most relevant domestic animals acting as MTC hosts: cattle, goat, sheep and pig. We used sera from an officially TB-free (OTF) country, Norway, and from a non-OTF one, Spain. The samples included sera from goats that had been vaccinated against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and sheep from a herd in which Cor… Leer más

Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Moreno I., Roy A., Risalde MA., Balseiro A., de Juan L., Romero B., Bezos J., Puentes E., Akerstedt J., Tessema T., Gortazar C., Dominguez L. and Dominguez M.

March 1st, 2019

Day-old chicks are a source of antimicrobial resistant bacteria for laying hen farms

Veterinary Microbiology 230:221-227.

     Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are rarely detected in laying hens and the objective of this longitudinal study was to test day-old chick as a source. Four different commercial batches raised on the same farm were monitored from day-old chick to laying hens using Escherichia coli as a model. Ten colonies from each of the eight samplings per batch were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using 14 antimicrobials.
Overall (313 isolates), higher resistance percentages were detected for tetracycline (26.8%), followed by sulphonamides (16.3%), ampicillin (16.0 %) and quinolones (10.9% and 9.3% for ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid, respectively). Resistance percentages of bacteria from day-old chicks were higher than those of pullets a… Leer más

Moreno MA., Garcia-Soto S., Hernandez M., Barcena C., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., Ugarte-Ruiz M. and Dominguez L..

February 26th, 2019

Epidemiology and Control of Notifiable Animal Diseases

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 6:43.

     There are a number of criteria by which an animal disease is classified as notifiable; the most important are typically related with its potential to spread internationally, as well as its impact on the health of domestic livestock, wildlife and, not the least, on human health (1). Because of the above, surveillance, early detection, control, and eradication of these diseases is of critical importance for countries in order to maintain or improve their animal health status. This requires the collaboration of all stakeholders involved (e.g., animal health authorities, livestock industry, and veterinary research institutions). The ability to prevent or respond adequately to the novel introduction of a notifiable disease into a herd, region or… Leer más

Alvarez J., Bakker D. and Bezos J..

February 20th, 2019

Salmonella Surveillance Systems in Swine and Humans in Spain: A Review

Veterinary Sciences 6(1):1-16.

     Non-typhoid salmonellosis is a common and problematic foodborne zoonotic disease in which pork and pork products can be an important potential source of infection. To prevent this disease, important efforts to monitor the situation in the main source, livestock, are conducted in most developed countries. In the European Union, European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) and European Center for Disease Control (ECDC) compile information at the member-state level, even though important differences in production systems and surveillance systems exist. Here, Salmonella surveillance systems in one of the main sources of foodborne salmonellosis, swine, and humans in Spain were reviewed to identify potential gaps and discuss potential ways of integration u… Leer más

Martinez-Aviles M., Garrido-Estepa M., Alvarez J. and de la Torre A.

February 14th, 2019

Comparison of individual, group and environmental sampling strategies to conduct influenza surveillance in pigs

BMC Veterinary Research 15(1):61.

Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important pathogen in pigs that affects productivity and has important public health implications because of its zoonotic nature. Surveillance is central to the control of influenza, however, detection of IAV infections can be challenging in endemically infected herds with low prevalence of infection.

In groups of suckling (18-21 days of age) and growing (35-45 days of age) pigs, we compared various sampling approaches to detect, isolate and sequence IAV using individual (nasal swabs, nasal wipes and oropharyngeal swabs), group (oral fluids, surface wipes and sow udder skin wipes) and environmental (airborne particles deposited on surfaces and air sa… Leer más

Garrido J., Alvarez J., Culhane M., Nirmala J., Cano JP. and Torremorell M.

February 1st, 2019

New serological platform for detecting antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in European badgers

Veterinary Medicine And Science 5(1):61-69.

     European badgers (Meles meles) have been identified as wildlife reservoirs for Mycobacterium bovis in the UK and Ireland, and may also have a role in the epidemiology of animal tuberculosis in other European regions. Thus, detection of M. bovis-infected badgers may be required for the purposes of surveillance and monitoring of disease levels in infected populations. Current serological assays to detect M. bovis infection in live badgers, while rapid and inexpensive, show limited diagnostic sensitivity. Here we describe and evaluate new ELISA platforms for the recognition of the P22 multiprotein complex derived from the purified protein derivative (PPD) of M. bovis. The recognition of IgG against P22 multiprotein complex derived from PPD-B w… Leer más

Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Dave D., Moreno I., Anderson P., Lesellier S., Gormley E., Dominguez L., Balseiro A., Gortazar C., Dominguez M. and Salguero FJ.

February 1st, 2019

A new test to detect antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in red deer serum

The Veterinary Journal 244:98-103.

     Red deer (Cervus elaphus) farming is a growing economic activity worldwide. However, the capacity of this species to act as reservoir of animal tuberculosis (TB) poses a threat to other wildlife and to livestock. Diagnostic assay accuracy in this species is therefore highly relevant for prevention and control measures. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the protein complex P22, obtained from Mycobacterium bovis derived purified protein derivative (bPPD), as a candidate antigen for the detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). We assessed the performance of this new antigen in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in TB-positive and TB-negative red deer, in comparison with a bP… Leer más

Thomas J., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Moreno I., Romero B., Garrido F., Juste R., Dominguez M., Dominguez L., Gortazar C. and Risalde MA.

February 1st, 2019

Evaluation of the McLintock syringe as a cause of non-specific reactions in the intradermal tuberculin test used for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis

Research In Veterinary Science 122:175-178.

     The objective of this study was to elucidate whether the use of the McLintock syringe, used to inject tuberculin in cattle in several countries and based on an intradermal inoculation by needle, may, in itself, cause skin reactions that can be interpreted as positive reactions regardless of the real tuberculosis (TB) infection status of the animals.
Forty-four cattle from an officially TB-free (OTF) herd were selected for the experiment. Each animal received four inoculations [one with sterile phosphate buffer saline (PBS) with 10% of glycerol and three with bovine purified protein derivative (PPD), as performed during the single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test], two on each side of the neck (n=176 inoculations). Three different Mc… Leer más

Roy A., Diez-Guerrier A., Ortega J., de la Cruz ML., Saez-Llorente JL., Dominguez L., de Juan L., Alvarez J. and Bezos J..

January 25th, 2019

Spatio-temporal trends in the frequency of interspecific interactions between domestic and wild ungulates from Mediterranean Spain

PLoS ONE 14(1):e0211216.

     Controlling infections shared by wildlife and livestock requires the understanding and quantification of interspecific interactions between the species involved. This is particularly important in extensive multi-host systems, in which controlled domestic animals interact with uncontrolled, abundant and expanding wild species, such as wild ungulates. We have, therefore, quantified the interspecific interactions between wild boar (Sus scrofa) and free-ranging cattle in Mediterranean Spain, along with their spatio-temporal variability. GPS-GSM-collars were used to monitor 12 cows and 14 wild boar in the Doñana National Park between 2011 and 2013. Interactions were defined as encounters between cattle and wild boar within a spatio-temporal wind… Leer más

Triguero-Ocana R., Barasona JA., Carro F., Soriguer RC., Vicente J. and Acevedo P.

January 3rd, 2019

Revisiting area risk classification of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

BMC Infectious Diseases 19(1):2.

     Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease of public health relevance in Brazil. To prioritize disease control measures, the Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde of Brazil’s Ministry of Health (SVS/MH) uses retrospective human case counts from VL surveillance data to inform a municipality-based risk classification. In this study, we compared the underlying VL risk, using a spatiotemporal explicit Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM), with the risk classification currently in use by the Brazil’s Ministry of Health. We aim to assess how well the current risk classes capture the underlying VL risk as modelled by the BHM.
Methods: Annual counts of human VL cases and the population at risk for all Brazil’s 5564 muni… Leer más

Machado G., Alvarez J., Bakka HC., Perez AM., Donato LE., de Ferreira Lima FE., Vieria-Alves R. and del Rio Vilas VJ.

January 1st, 2019

Validation of a new serological assay for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex-specific antibodies in pigs and wild boar

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 162:11-17.

     Background and objectives
Animal tuberculosis (TB) is a multi-host disease involving a wide variety of domestic and wild mammals and causing a significant economic burden and sanitary problems. Wild boar and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) are indicators of the circulation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and can play a role in its maintenance. The proper diagnosis of MTC contact in these species is, therefore, a key factor as regards controlling TB. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the protein complex P22 as a candidate for use in an in-house ELISA to identify M. tuberculosis complex-specific antibodies for the diagnosis of TB in comparison to the commonly used bPPD-based ELIS… Leer más

Thomas J., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Moreno I., Cano-Terriza D., de Juan L., Garcia-Bocanegra I., Dominguez L., Dominguez M., Gortazar C. and Risalde MA.

January 1st, 2019

Analysis of the cattle movement network and its association with the risk of bovine tuberculosis at the farm level in Castilla y Leon, Spain

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 66(1):327-340.

     Between-farm transmission of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) occurs mostly through fence-to-fence contact between neighboring farms, endemic infected wildlife or movement of infected animals. Unfortunately, bTB detection is frequently delayed and identification of the source of introduction is often difficult, particularly in endemic regions. Here, we characterized the cattle movement network of Castilla y Leon, a high bTB-prevalence (1.9% at the farm-level in 2015) region in Spain, over six years and analyzed the distribution of bTB to ultimately assess the likelihood of spatial and movement-mediated transmission. We analyzed movement and bTB data from 27,633 units located in the region, of which 87% were involved in ~1.4 million movements of ~8… Leer más

Pozo P., VanderWaal K., Grau A., de la Cruz ML., Nacar J., Bezos J., Perez AM., Minguez O. and Alvarez J..

January 1st, 2019

Could African swine fever and classical swine fever viruses enter into the United States via swine products carried in air passengers` luggage?

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 66(1):166-180.

     On average 8,000 pork derived products are annually confiscated by Customs and Border Protection at the United States (US) ports of entry such as international airports, harbours or mail offices. These swine products with unknown sanitary status could pose a risk for foreign animal diseases introduction into the US. This study aimed at analysing the risk of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) being introduced into the US through prohibited swine products carried by air passengers (PSPAP) and identifying locations and time periods at higher risk where and when preventive and mitigation measures should be implemented. Our results estimated that the risk for CSFV entry was seven times higher and further spre… Leer más

Jurado C., Paternoster G., Martinez-Lopez B., Burton K. and Mur L.

January 1st, 2019

Assessment of reproducibility of a VP7 Blocking ELISA diagnostic test for African horse sickness

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 66:83-90.

     The laboratory diagnosis of African horse sickness (AHS) is important for: (a) demonstrating freedom from infection in a population, animals or products for trade (b) assessing the efficiency of eradication policies; (c) laboratory confirmation of clinical diagnosis; (d) estimating the prevalence of AHS infection; and (e) assessing postvaccination immune status of individual animals or populations. Although serological techniques play a secondary role in the confirmation of clinical cases, their use is very important for all the other purposes due to their high throughput, ease of use and good cost-benefit ratio. The main objective of this study was to support the validation of AHS VP7 Blocking ELISA up to the Stage 3 of the World Animal He… Leer más

Duran-Ferrer M., Aguero M., Zientara S., Smith S., Potgieter C., Rueda P., Sastre P., Monaco F., Villalba R., Tena-Tomás C., Batten C., Frost L., Flannery J., Gubbins S., Lubisi BA., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Emery M., Sturgill T., Ostlund E. and Castillo-Olivares J.

Science Publication
ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 250 SUAT 61 SUAT 15
2 ICM 237 ZTA 53 MYC 11
3 MYC 227 MYC 48 SAP 11
4 SUAT 219 ICM 40 ZTA 6
5 NED 75 SAP 31 ICM 4
  VISAVET 1124 315 55

Impact Factor Average
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 3.907 ZTA 5.359 ZTA 6.183
2 SAP 3.818 SUAT 4.227 SAP 6.06
3 SUAT 2.987 SAP 4.095 NED 4.3
4 MYC 2.8 NED 3.858 SUAT 4.287
5 DICM 2.776 ICM 3.798 MYC 3.118
VISAVET 3.284 4.885 6.794

ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo.
1 Transbound Emerg Dis 93 Front Vet Sci 35
2 Vet Microbiol 88 Transbound Emerg Dis 32
3 Prev Vet Med 77 Animals 15
4 Front Vet Sci 61 Res Vet Sci 14
5 PLoS ONE 56 Sci Rep 14
  All journals 354   All journals 39