Home \ Research \ Scientific publications \ 2021

SCI scientific publications 2021

December 14th, 2021

Performance and Agreement Between WGS Variant Calling Pipelines Used for Bovine Tuberculosis Control: Toward International Standardization

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 8:780018.

     Whole genome sequencing (WGS) and allied variant calling pipelines are a valuable tool for the control and eradication of infectious diseases, since they allow the assessment of the genetic relatedness of strains of animal pathogens. In the context of the control of tuberculosis (TB) in livestock, mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis, these tools offer a high-resolution alternative to traditional molecular methods in the study of herd breakdown events. However, despite the increased use and efforts in the standardization of WGS methods in human tuberculosis around the world, the application of these WGS-enabled approaches to control TB in livestock is still in early development. Our study pursued an initial evaluation of the performance and… Leer más

Lorente-Leal V., Farrell D., Romero B., Alvarez J., de Juan L. and Gordon SV.

December 3rd, 2021

Susceptibility testing of Prototheca bovis isolates from cases of bovine mastitis using the CLSI reference broth microdilution method and the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric panel

Medical Mycology 59(12):1257-1261.

     A total of 62 Prototheca bovis isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested for susceptibility to different antifungal compounds by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference microdilution method and a commercial colorimetric microdilution panel (Sensititre YeastOne). All isolates displayed low susceptibility to echinocandins (MICs > 8 μg/ml for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin), flucytosine (MIC > 64 μg/ml), and the azoles enilconazole and fluconazole (MICs > 4 and > 64 μg/ml, respectively). Moreover, 45.2%, 32.3%, and 1.6% of isolates had MICs > 4 μg/ml for ketoconazole, terbinafine, and voriconazole, respectively, when tested by the CLSI method. In contrast, all isolates were more… Leer más

Alvarez-Perez S., Anega B., Diaz A., Gonzalez-Martin JV., Riesgo-Martínez M., Garcia ME. and Blanco JL.

December 1st, 2021

Genomic and Pathogenic Investigations of Streptococcus suis Serotype 7 Population derived from a Human Patient and Pigs

Emerging Microbes And Infections 10(1):1960-1974.

     Streptococcus suis is one of the important emerging zoonotic pathogens. Serotype 2 is most prevalent in patients worldwide. In the present study, we first isolated one S. suis serotype 7 strain GX69 from the blood culture of a patient with septicemia complicated with pneumonia in China. In order to deepen the understanding of S. suis serotype 7 population characteristics, we investigated the phylogenetic structure, genomic features, and virulence of S. suis serotype 7 population, including 35 strains and 79 genomes. Significant diversities were revealed in S. suis serotype 7 population, which were clustered into 22 sequence types (STs), five minimum core genome (MCG) groups, and six lineages. Lineages 1, 3a, and 6 were mainly constituted by… Leer más

Liang P., Wang M., Gottschalk M., Vela AI., Estrada AA., Wang J., Du P., Luo M., Wu Z. and Zheng H.

November 30th, 2021

Safety of African Swine Fever Vaccine Candidate Lv17/WB/Rie1 in Wild Boar: Overdose and Repeated Doses

Frontiers In Immunology 12:761753.

     African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal infectious disease that affects domestic pigs and wild boar. Outbreaks of ASF have grown considerably in the last decade causing important economic consequences for the swine industry. Its control is hampered by the lack of an effective treatment or vaccine. In Europe, the wild boar is a key wild reservoir for ASF. The results of the oral vaccination trial of wild boar with Lv17/WB/Rie1 are hope for this problem. However, this vaccine candidate has certain safety concerns, since it is a naturally attenuated vaccine. Therefore, the current study aims to evaluate the safety of this vaccine candidate in terms of overdose (high dose) and repeated doses (revaccination) in wild boar. Low-dose orally va… Leer más

Barasona JA., Cadenas-Fernández E., Kosowska A., Barroso-Arevalo S., Rivera B., Sanchez R., Porras N., Gallardo C. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

November 30th, 2021

Evolution of ColE1-like plasmids across γ-Proteobacteria: From bacteriocin production to antimicrobial resistance

PLoS Genetics 17(11):e1009919.

     Antimicrobial resistance is one of the major threats to Public Health worldwide. Understanding the transfer and maintenance of antimicrobial resistance genes mediated by mobile genetic elements is thus urgent. In this work, we focus on the ColE1-like plasmid family, whose distinctive replication and multicopy nature has given rise to key discoveries and tools in molecular biology. Despite being massively used, the hosts, functions, and evolutionary history of these plasmids remain poorly known. Here, we built specific Hidden Markov Model(HMM) profiles to search ColE1 replicons within genomes. We identified 1,035 ColE1 plasmids in five Orders of γ-Proteobacteria, several of which are described here for the first time. The phylogenetic a… Leer más

Ares M., Rocha EPC. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

November 20th, 2021

Differences in wild boar spatial behaviour among land uses and management scenarios in Mediterranean ecosystems

Science Of The Total Environment 796:148966.

     The ubiquitous wild boar is causing diverse and growing conflicts of socio-ecological and economic relevance worldwide. For that reason, knowledge of its spatial ecology is crucial to designing effective management programmes. But this knowledge is scarce in Mediterranean areas with mixed land uses. We describe the spatial ecology and habitat selection of 41 adult wild boar monitored using GPS collars and analyse the effects of sex and the period (food shortage period, hunting season and food abundance period) under different land uses (protected areas, mixed farms and fenced hunting estates). The spatial ecology of wild boar was characterised by marked temporality, mediated by sex and the land uses in the area. The activity (ACT), daily ra… Leer más

Laguna E., Barasona JA., Vicente J., Keuling O. and Acevedo O.

November 3rd, 2021

Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) aggressive behavior towards other cetacean species in the western Mediterranean

Scientific Reports 11(1):21582.

     Aggressive behavior of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) towards conspecifics is widely described, but they have also often been reported attacking and killing harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) around the world. However, very few reports exist of aggressive interactions between bottlenose dolphins and other cetacean species. Here, we provide the first evidence that bottlenose dolphins in the western Mediterranean exhibit aggressive behavior towards both striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso`s dolphins (Grampus griseus). Necropsies and visual examination of stranded striped (14) and Risso`s (2) dolphins showed numerous lesions (external rake marks and different bone fractures or internal organ damage by blunt trauma).… Leer más

Crespo JL., Rubio-Guerri C., Jimenez MA., Aznar JF., Marco-Cabedo V., Melero M., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Gozalbes P. and Garcia-Parraga D.

November 3rd, 2021

A new method for sampling African swine fever virus genome and its inactivation in environmental samples

Scientific Reports 11(1):21560.

     African swine fever (ASF) is currently the most dangerous disease for the global pig industry, causing huge economic losses, due to the lack of effective vaccine or treatment. Only the early detection of ASF virus (ASFV) and proper biosecurity measures are effective to reduce the viral expansion. One of the most widely recognized risks as regards the introduction ASFV into a country is infected animals and contaminated livestock vehicles. In order to improve ASF surveillance, we have assessed the capacity for the detection and inactivation of ASFV genome by using Dry-Sponges (3 M) pre-hydrated with a new surfactant liquid. We sampled different surfaces in ASFV-contaminated facilities, including animal skins, and the results were compared to… Leer más

Kosowska A., Barasona JA., Barroso-Arevalo S., Rivera B., Dominguez L. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

November 1st, 2021

Equine infection with Leishmania spp. in Costa Rica: Study of five cases

Veterinary Medicine And Science 7(6):2234-2239.

     Cutaneous forms of leishmaniosis due to Leishmania braziliensis have been reported in horses in the New World. Domestic animals play a role in the transmission of the disease. In Costa Rica, human cases of L. braziliensis, L. panamensis and L. infantum have been reported. The present report describes five cases of equine cutaneous leishmaniosis in Costa Rica. The aetiological diagnosis was based on the presence of the parasite within the lesions. Skin biopsies were used to perform histopathological analyses of the lesions. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the presence of the Leishmania spp. antigens in tissue sections. Laser-capture micro-dissection and quantitative real-time PCR techniques were carried out to detect the pathogen nuc… Leer más

Ortega-García MV., Salguero FJ., Garcia N., Dominguez M., Moreno I. and Berrocal A.

October 28th, 2021

Systematic Determination of Herpesvirus in Free-Ranging Cetaceans Stranded in the Western Mediterranean: Tissue Tropism and Associated Lesions

Viruses-Basel 3(11):2180.

     The monitoring of herpesvirus infection provides useful information when assessing marine mammals’ health. This paper shows the prevalence of herpesvirus infection (80.85%) in 47 cetaceans stranded on the coast of the Valencian Community, Spain. Of the 966 tissues evaluated, 121 tested positive when employing nested-PCR (12.53%). The largest proportion of herpesvirus-positive tissue samples was in the reproductive system, nervous system, and tegument. Herpesvirus was more prevalent in females, juveniles, and calves. More than half the DNA PCR positive tissues contained herpesvirus RNA, indicating the presence of actively replicating virus. This RNA was most frequently found in neonates. Fourteen unique sequences were identified. Most amplif… Leer más

Vargas-Castro I., Melero M., Crespo JL., Jimenez MA., Sierra E., Rubio-Guerri C., Arbelo M., Fernandez A., Garcia-Parraga D. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

October 1st, 2021

Environment, vector, or host? Using machine learning to untangle the mechanisms driving arbovirus outbreaks

Ecological Applications 31(7):e02407.

     Climatic, landscape and host features are critical components in shaping outbreaks of vector-borne diseases. However, the relationship between the outbreaks of vector-borne pathogens and their environmental drivers is typically complicated, nonlinear and may vary by taxonomic units below the species level (e.g., strain or serotype). Here, we aim to untangle how these complex forces shape the risk of outbreaks of Bluetongue virus (BTV); a vector-borne pathogen that is continuously emerging and re-emerging across Europe, with severe economic implications. We tested if the ecological predictors of BTV outbreak risk were serotype-specific by examining the most prevalent serotypes recorded in Europe (1, 4, and 8). We used a robust machine learni… Leer más

Alkhamis M., Fountain-Jones NM., Aguilar-Vega C. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

October 1st, 2021

Long-term determinants of the seroprevalence of the bluetongue virus in deer species in southern Spain

Research In Veterinary Science 139:102-111.

     Bluetongue is a vector-borne disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants, with a major socioeconomic impact. Endemic circulation of the bluetongue virus serotype 4 (BTV-4) and BTV-1 have occurred in Spain since 2004 and 2007, respectively. However, epidemiological studies have seldom been approached from a long-term perspective in wild ruminants. A total of 881 deer (red deer and fallow deer) were necropsied from 2005 to 2018 as part of the DNP health-monitoring program. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against BTV with the aims of assessing the temporal trend and to evaluate the modulating factors: individual, populational, environmental, and stochastic. Red deer displayed statistically significant higher seroprevalences of BTV (… Leer más

Barroso P., Risalde MA., Garcia-Bocanegra I., Acevedo P., Barasona JA., Palencia P., Carro F., Jiménez-Ruiz S., Pujols J., Montoro V. and Vicente J.

September 15th, 2021

Evaluation of PCR assays for Campylobacter fetus detection and discrimination between C. fetus subspecies in bovine preputial wash samples

Theriogenology 172:300-306.

     Campylobacter fetus is a zoonotic pathogen found in cattle, in which it is one of the main causes of infectious infertility. Most diagnostic laboratories use PCR as quick easy tool for C. fetus identification. However, there is no standardized PCR assay for C. fetus detection and subspecies differentiation, hindering the comparison of results. In this study, we evaluated selected PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA, gyrB, cpn60, cstA, cdtB and nahE genes for C. fetus identification and ISCfe1, sapB2, parA and virB11 for subspecies differentiation. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were assessed for each PCR assay, and the assays were then tested on 289 bull preputial samples that had also been analysed by 16S rRNA barcode metagenomics. I… Leer más

Polo C., Garcia-Seco T., Hernandez M., Fernandez V., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., Goyache J., Dominguez L. and Perez-Sancho M..

September 10th, 2021

The spatial ecology of red deer under different land use and management scenarios: Protected areas, mixed farms and fenced hunting estates

Science Of The Total Environment 786:147124.

     The knowledge regarding the spatial ecology of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in different environments is crucial if effective management actions are to be designed. However, this knowledge continues to be scarce in the complex contexts of mixed land use and management circumstances. This study describes the spatial ecology of red deer monitored using GPS collars in Mediterranean ecosystems of South-Central Spain, considering the effect of individual and seasonal (food shortage period, rut, hunting season and food abundance period) factors on different land use and management scenarios, namely protected areas, mixed farms and fenced hunting estates. Our results showed less activity (ACT), a shorter daily range (DR) and a smaller home range (HR)… Leer más

Laguna E., Carpio AJ., Vicente J., Barasona JA., Triguero-Ocana R., Jiménez-Ruiz S., Gomez-Manzaneque A. and Acevedo P.

September 1st, 2021

Isolation and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry of canine peripheral blood and intraepithelial and lamina propria duodenal T lymphocytes

Veterinary Immunology And Immunopathology 239:110305.

     The gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) effector sites play a crucial role on the pathogenesis of many immune-mediated gastrointestinal diseases. The lymphocytes at these effector sites are principally T cells which present important morphological, phenotypical and functional differences. Flow cytometry (FC) is one of the most commonly used techniques to characterize intestinal lymphocytes in human and animal models. Published studies with a focus on dogs for intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) immunophenotyping exist in very limited numbers. Moreover, no lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) isolation protocols in the canine species have been described for FC evaluation. In addition to immune intestinal dysregulation, imbalances in the peripher… Leer más

Agulla B., Garcia-Sancho M., Sainz A., Rodriguez-Franco F., Diaz-Reganon D., Rodriguez-Bertos A. and Villaescusa A.

September 1st, 2021

African swine fever vaccine: Turning a dream into reality

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 68(5):2657-2668.

     African swine fever (ASF) is currently threatening the swine industry at a global level. The disease originated in Africa has spread to Europe, Asia and Oceania, since 2007, reaching a pandemic dimension. Currently, the spread of ASF is unstoppable and that the development of a safe and effective vaccine is urgently required. The objective of this paper is to review the vaccine candidates tested during the 20th and 21st centuries, to identify the strengths and weaknesses of these studies and to highlight what we should learn. Several strategies have been explored to date, some of which have shown positive and negative results. Inactivated preparations and subunit vaccines are not a viable option. The most promising strategy would appear to … Leer más

Munoz-Perez C., Jurado C. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

August 31st, 2021

Conjugation Inhibitors Effectively Prevent Plasmid Transmission in Natural Environments

MBio 12(4):e0127721.

     Plasmid conjugation is a major route for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Inhibiting conjugation has been proposed as a feasible strategy to stop or delay the propagation of antibiotic resistance genes. Several compounds have been shown to be conjugation inhibitors in vitro, specifically targeting the plasmid horizontal transfer machinery. However, the in vivo efficiency and the applicability of these compounds to clinical and environmental settings remained untested. Here we show that the synthetic fatty acid 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA), when used as a fish food supplement, lowers the conjugation frequency of model plasmids up to 10-fold in controlled water microcosms. When added to the food for mice, 2-HDA diminished the conjuga… Leer más

Palencia-Gandara C., Getino M., Moyano G., Redondo S., Fernandez-Lopez R., Gonzalez-Zorn B. and de la Cruz F.

August 27th, 2021

Effect of the inoculation site of bovine and avian purified protein derivatives (PPDs) on the performance of the intradermal tuberculin test in goats from tuberculosis- free and infected herds

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 8:722825.

     The single and comparative intradermal tuberculin (SIT and CIT) tests are used for the ante-mortem diagnosis of caprine tuberculosis (TB). The tuberculin injection site has been associated with a different performance of the test in cattle. In contrast to that required in cattle in Europe (cervical injection), it can be carried out in the scapular region in goats. Nevertheless, there are no previous data concerning the effect of the injection site on the performance of the test in goats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two different inoculation sites (cervical and scapular) on the performance of the SIT/CIT tests. This was done by intradermally inoculating 309 goats from two infected herds and one TB-free herd wit… Leer más

Ortega J., Roy A., Alvarez J., Sanchez-Cesteros J., Romero B., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Saez-Llorente JL., Lopez M., Dominguez L., de Juan L. and Bezos J..

August 20th, 2021

Epidemiological Factors Associated With Caligus rogercresseyi Infection, Abundance, and Spatial Distribution in Southern Chile

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 8:595024.

     Sea lice (Caligus rogercresseyi) are external parasites that affect farmed salmonids in Chile, and the scale of their sanitary and economic impact cannot be overstated. Even though space-time patterns suppose parasite aggregation, specific locations related to different infestation levels, as well as their associated factors across the geographic range involved, had not been investigated as of the writing of the present article. The understanding of the effects and factors entailed by the presence of C. rogercresseyi may be deemed a key element of Integrated Pest Management (IPM). In the present study, the multivariate spatial scan statistic was used to identify geographic areas and times of C. rogercresseyi infestation and to estimate the … Leer más

Lepe-Lopez M., Escobar-Dodero J., Rubio D., Alvarez J., Zimin-Veselkoff N. and Mardones FO.

August 12nd, 2021

Assigning Defined Daily/Course Doses for Antimicrobials in Turkeys to Enable a Cross-Country Quantification and Comparison of Antimicrobial Use

Antibiotics 10(8):971.

     Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens our public health and is mainly driven by antimicrobial usage (AMU). For this reason the World Health Organization calls for detailed monitoring of AMU over all animal sectors involved. Therefore, we aimed to quantify AMU on turkey farms. First, turkey-specific Defined Daily Dose (DDDturkey) was determined. These were compared to the broiler alternative from the European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption (DDDvet), that mention DDDvet as a proxy for other poultry species. DDDturkey ranged from being 81.5% smaller to 48.5% larger compared to its DDDvet alternative for broilers. Second, antimicrobial treatments were registered on 60 turkey farms divided over France, Germany and Spain … Leer más

Joosten P., Sarrazin S., Chauvin C., Moyano G., Wadepohl K., Van Gompel L., Wagenaar J., Dewulf J. and EFFORT Group.

August 11st, 2021

Evaluation of the P22 ELISA for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis-specific antibodies in oral fluid samples obtained from goats

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 8:674636.

     The ante-mortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in ruminants is based mainly on the intradermal tuberculin test and the IFN-γ assay. Antibody (Ab)-based tests have emerged as potential tools for the detection of TB infected animals using serum, plasma or even milk samples. Oral fluids have also been evaluated as alternative samples with which to detect specific Abs against M. bovis in pigs or wild boars, but not in ruminants. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the performance of an in house-ELISA for TB diagnosis (P22 ELISA) in goats as an experimental model for the diagnosis of TB using oral fluid samples.
Oral fluid samples from 64 goats from a TB-infected herd (n=197) and all the animals from a TB-free her… Leer más

Ortega J., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Bezos J., Roy A., de Juan L., Romero B., Moreno I., Gómez-Buendía A., Agullo-Ros I., Dominguez L. and Dominguez M.

July 23rd, 2021

Antimicrobial Usage in Companion and Food Animals: Methods, Surveys and Relationships With Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals and Humans, Volume II

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 8:728267.

     The best way to quantify antimicrobial use (AMU) in animals has raised wide research interests over the past years. Following the success of the first edition of the Research Topic on “Antimicrobial Usage in Companion and Food Animals: Methods, Surveys, and Relationships with Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals and Humans” Moreno et al., a second edition was launched. The objective was to continue the discussion on AMU metrics and expand the topic to other geographical regions (beyond North American and European Union countries), as well as other animal species (other than cattle, pigs, poultry, cats, or dogs).… Leer más

Collineau L., Carson CA. and Moreno MA.

July 23rd, 2021

Genomic evolution of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli

Scientific Reports 11(1):15108.

     The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest health threats globally. In addition, the use of antimicrobial drugs in humans and livestock is considered an important driver of antimicrobial resistance. The commensal microbiota, and especially the intestinal microbiota, has been shown to have an important role in the emergence of AMR. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) also play a central role in facilitating the acquisition and spread of AMR genes. We isolated Escherichia coli (n = 627) from fecal samples in respectively 25 poultry, 28 swine, and 15 veal calf herds from 6 European countries to investigate the phylogeny of E. coli at country, animal host and farm levels. Furthermore, we examine the evolution of AMR in E. … Leer más

Leekitcharoenphon P., Hans Kristofer Johansson M., Munk P., Malorny B., Skarzynska M., Wadepohl K., Moyano G., Hesp A., Veldman KT., Bossers A., EFFORT Consortium., Zajac M., Wasyl D., Sanders P., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Brouwer A., Wagenaar J., Heederik D., Mevius D. and Aarestrup FM.

July 15th, 2021

First Detection of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 Variant of Concern in an Asymptomatic Dog in Spain

Viruses-Basel 13(7):1379.

     Natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets has been widely documented during the last year. Although the majority of reports suggested that dogs’ susceptibility to the infection is low, little is known about viral pathogenicity and transmissibility in the case of variants of concern, such as B.1.1.7 in this species. Here, as part of a large-scale study on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in pets in Spain, we have detected the B.1.1.7 variant of concern (VOC) in a dog whose owners were infected with SARS-CoV-2. The animal did not present any symptoms, but viral loads were high in the nasal and rectal swabs. In addition, viral isolation was possible from both swabs, demonstrating that the dog was shedding infectious virus. Seroconversion occurred 23 days afte… Leer más

Barroso-Arevalo S., Rivera B., Dominguez L. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

July 9th, 2021

Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Hyalomma lusitanicum Ticks Feeding on Wild Boars

Frontiers In Microbiology 12:692147.

     The role of ticks in the maintenance and spread of emerging viral zoonotic pathogens, whose main hosts are wildlife species, is well known (Ruiz-Fons et al., 2008; Baneth, 2014; Madison-Antenucci et al., 2020). Of special concern are wild ungulates (deer and wild swine), species with wide distribution and high density, which allow the spread of tick-borne viruses in Europe (Kriz et al., 2014). In this sense, viruses belonging to families Flaviviridae (tick-borne encephalitis), Nairoviridae (Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever), and Phenuiviridae (severe fever with thrombocytopenia) have emerged in several European countries (Madison-Antenucci et al., 2020), such as Spain and the Czechia (Kriz et al., 2014; Moraga-Fernández et al., 2020), spread… Leer más

Rivero-Juarez A., Risalde MA., Gortazar C., Lopez-Lopez P., Barasona JA., Frias M., Caballero-Gomez J., de la Fuente JM. and Rivero A.

July 6th, 2021

Risk Factors for Antimicrobial Resistance in Turkey Farms: A Cross-Sectional Study in Three European Countries

Antibiotics 10(7):820.

     Food-producing animals are an important reservoir and potential source of transmission of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to humans. However, research on AMR in turkey farms is limited. This study aimed to identify risk factors for AMR in turkey farms in three European countries (Germany, France, and Spain). Between 2014 and 2016, faecal samples, antimicrobial usage (AMU), and biosecurity information were collected from 60 farms. The level of AMR in faecal samples was quantified in three ways: By measuring the abundance of AMR genes through (i) shotgun metagenomics sequencing (n = 60), (ii) quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting ermB, tetW, sul2, and aph3`-III; (n = 304), and (iii) by identifying the phenotypic pre… Leer más

Horie M., Yang D., Joosten P., Munk P., Wadepohl K., Chauvin C., Moyano G., Skarzynska M., Dewulf J., Aarestrup F., Blaha T., Sanders P., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Wasyl D., Wagenaar J., Heederik D., Mevius D., Schmitt H., Smit LAM., Van Gompel L. and EFFORT Group.

July 3rd, 2021

A study of the composition of the Obsoletus complex and genetic diversity of Culicoides obsoletus populations in Spain

Parasites And Vectors 14(1):351.

     Background: The Culicoides obsoletus species complex (henceforth `Obsoletus complex`) is implicated in the transmission of several arboviruses that can cause severe disease in livestock, such as bluetongue, African horse sickness, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and Schmallenberg disease. Thus, this study aimed to increase our knowledge of the composition and genetic diversity of the Obsoletus complex by partial sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene in poorly studied areas of Spain.
Methods: A study of C. obsoletus populations was carried out using a single-tube multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that was designed to differentiate the Obsoletus complex sibling species Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scot… Leer más

Aguilar-Vega C., Rivera B., Lucientes J., Gutierrez-Boada I. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

July 2nd, 2021

Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance to Aminoglycosides and Macrolides in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni From Healthy Livestock in Spain (2002-2018)

Frontiers In Microbiology 12:689262.

     Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Campylobacter spp. (Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni) is a concern due to its importance in public health, particularly when it involves aminoglycosides and macrolides, drugs of choice for treatment of human cases. Co-resistance to these two antimicrobial classes involves transfer of genetic elements and/or acquisition of mutations in different genetic loci, which can in turn spread through vertical or horizontal gene transfer (HGT) phenomena, with each route having different potential implications. This study aimed at evaluating the association between the presence of phenotypic resistance to these two antimicrobial classes in C. coli and C. jejuni recovered from livestock at slaughterhouses in … Leer más

Lopez-Chavarrias V., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Barcena C., Olarra-Guillen A., Garcia M., Saez-Llorente JL., De Frutos C., Serrano T., Perez I., Moreno MA., Dominguez L. and Alvarez J..

July 1st, 2021

Natural SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Kept Ferrets, Spain

Emerging Infectious Diseases 27:7.

     We found severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA in 6 (8.4%) of 71 ferrets in central Spain and isolated and sequenced virus from 1 oral and 1 rectal swab specimen. Natural infection occurs in kept ferrets when virus circulation among humans is high. However, small ferret collections probably cannot maintain virus circulation… Leer más

Gortazar C., Barroso-Arevalo S., Ferreras-Colino E., Isla J., de la Fuente G., Rivera B., Dominguez L., de la Fuente J. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

July 1st, 2021

Capsular type diversity of Mannheimia haemolytica determined by multiplex real-time PCR and indirect hemagglutination in clinical isolates from cattle, sheep, and goats in Spain

Veterinary Microbiology 258:109121.

     This study compares the utility of a commercially available multiplex q-PCR assay for serotyping A1, A2, and A6 M. haemolytica serotypes with indirect hemagglutination, for determining the relative distribution of M. haemolytica capsular types associated with respiratory disorders in cattle, sheep, and goats. For the 129 isolates analyzed, both q-PCR and IHA assays exhibited nearly complete agreement for capsular types A1 (k = 0.965) and A2 (k = 0.888) and substantial agreement for A6 (k = 0.801). Despite the overall good performance of the commercial q-PCR, its effectiveness differed between the host origin of the isolates. The serotype was identified by q-PCR in 83.3 % of cattle, 77.8 % of goat, and 53.8 % of sheep isolates. Combining the… Leer más

Arnal JL., Fernandez A., Vela AI., Sanz C., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF. and Cid D.

July 1st, 2021

The wildlife-livestock interface on extensive free-ranging pig farms in central Spain during the montanera period

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 68(4):2066-2078.

     The effective management of shared pathogens between wild ungulates and livestock requires the understanding of the processes of interaction between them. In this work we studied the interspecific frequency of interaction (ifreq) and its spatio‐temporal pattern between wild and domestic ungulates that coexist in free‐ranging farms. For this purpose, 6 red deer, 6 wild boar, 8 Iberian pigs and 3 cattle were monitored using GPS devices during the “montanera” period (the period in which Iberian pigs are maintained in extensive conditions to feed on acorn). The ifreq was quantified for two spatio‐temporal windows: 30 m – 10 minutes, for inferring potential direct interactions (short window), and 30 m – 12 days for indirect int… Leer más

Triguero-Ocana R., Laguna E., Jiménez-Ruiz S., Fernandez-Lopez J., Garcia-Bocanegra I., Barasona JA., Risalde MA., Montoro V., Vicente J. and Acevedo P.

July 1st, 2021

Sero-molecular survey and risk factors of equine piroplasmosis in horses in Spain

Equine Veterinary Journal 53(4):771-779.

     Background: Theileria equi and Babesia caballi cause equine piroplasmosis (EP), one of the most important tick-borne diseases of horses due to its high negative impact to the equine industry. Although infections with these parasites have been reported for decades in Spain, epidemiological studies have only been carried out in certain regions.
Objectives: To determine the (sero)prevalence of these parasites in asymptomatic horses nationwide in Spain and to identify potential individual and environmental factors associated with seropositivity to EP.
Study design: Sample size was calculated according to the horses registered in Spain in 2013 and by autonomous community using a random stratified sampling. A questionnaire was used … Leer más

Camino E., Buendia A., Dorrego-Rodriguez A., Pozo P., de Juan L., Dominguez L. and Cruz F..

June 17th, 2021

Long-Term Determinants of the Seroprevalence of the Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa)

Animals 11:1805.

     The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen whose main reservoir is suids. Most of the ecological and epidemiological aspects of its sylvatic cycle remain unknown. Thus, in this work, we study the drivers of HEV exposure in the wild boar population of Doñana National Park (DNP, southwest Spain) operating in the medium and long-term (2005–2018). Anti-HEV antibodies are widely distributed throughout the wild boar (46.7 ± 3.8%, 327 out of 700 sampled), showing a statistically significant age-increasing pattern. The temporal pattern displayed important interannual fluctuations. This could be mediated by marked variations in the population control of the wild boar, and subsequent changes in abundance rates, and its interplay wit… Leer más

Barroso P., Risalde MA., Garcia-Bocanegra I., Acevedo O., Barasona JA., Caballero-Gomez J., Jiménez-Ruiz S., Rivero-Juarez A., Montoro V. and Vicente J.

June 15th, 2021

The Role of Interleukine-10 and Interferon-gamma as Potential Markers of the Evolution of African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Wild Boar

Pathogens 10(6):757.

     African swine fever virus (ASFv) is one of the most challenging pathogens to affect both domestic and wild pigs. The disease has now spread to Europe and Asia, causing great damage to the pig industry. Although no commercial vaccine with which to control the disease is, as yet, available, some potential vaccine candidates have shown good results in terms of protection. However, little is known about the host immune mechanisms underlying that protection, especially in wild boar, which is the main reservoir of the disease in Europe. Here, we study the role played by two cytokines (IL-10 and IFN-γ) in wild boar orally inoculated with the attenuated vaccine candidate Lv17/WB/Rie1 and challenged with a virulent ASFv genotype II isolate. A g… Leer más

Barroso-Arevalo S., Barasona JA., Cadenas-Fernández E. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

June 5th, 2021

Colistin selection of the mcr-1 gene in broiler chicken intestinal microbiota

Antibiotics 10(6):677.

     : Colistin has a long story of safe use in animals for the treatment and prevention of certain bacterial diseases. Nevertheless, the first description of the mcr-1 gene showed that colistin resistance can spread by horizontal gene transfer and changed the landscape. This study aimed to assess the effect of colistin administration on the dispersion of resistance in the microbiota of day-old broiler chicks and how the presence of mcr-1 genes influences the spread of colistin resistance determinants. In this study, 100 one-day-old chicks were divided into four groups of 25 animals (G1, G2, G3, and G4). Animals from G3/G4 were challenged with mcr-1-carrying Salmonella (day 7), while colistin (600 mg/L) was administered daily to G2/G4 animals th… Leer más

Miguela-Villoldo P., Moreno MA., Rebollada A., Rodriguez-Bertos A., Hernandez M., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., Gallardo A., Quesada A., Goyache J., Dominguez L. and Ugarte-Ruiz M..

June 1st, 2021

Influence of multiple factors on hematologic reference intervals in horses residing in livery yards in Spain

Veterinary Clinical Pathology 50(2):273-277.

     The hemogram is a routine analysis for equine veterinary practitioners in the assessment of patient clinical status. Reference intervals (RIs) of hematologic constituents vary according to different horse populations and are often described for a particular breed or horse type. The aims of this study were to determine RIs for hematologic constituents in a mixed-breed horse population residing in livery yards in central Spain and evaluate the associations between estimated RIs and multiple phenotypic and management characteristics. A total of 122 healthy horses from different breeds in central Spain were included in the study. RIs were calculated following the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology guidelines. Significant associa… Leer más

Buendia A., Teng KT., Camino E., Dominguez L. and Cruz F..

June 1st, 2021

Expansion of native wild boar populations is a new threat for semi-arid wetland areas

Ecological Indicators 125:107563.

     Wildlife management and conservation requires monitoring of species distribution and population indicators, especially when the unbalanced demographic changes of some species can affect the whole ecosystem functioning. The populations of wild boar (Sus scrofa) have, over the past few decades, undergone an expansion around the world, reaching situations of overabundance that can cause serious economic, ecological and health problems. This numerical increase of wild boar and its new spatial invasion can affect certain vulnerable species in sensitive ecological zones, such as the main inland wetland complex in SW Europe.
In this context, we aim to (i) examine the association of wild boar abundance and that of lagomorphs, and waterbird p… Leer más

Barasona JA., Carpio A., Boadella M., Gortazar C., Pineiro X., Zumalacarregui C., Vicente J. and Vinuela J.

May 1st, 2021

Distribution of Pestivirus exposure in wild ruminants in Spain

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 68(3):1577-1585.

     A large‐scale study was carried out to determine the prevalence of antibodies against Pestivirus species in wild ruminants and describe their spatial variation in mainland Spain. Serum samples of 1,874 wild ruminants from different regions of this country were collected between the years 2000 and 2017. A total of 6.6% (123/1,874) animals showed antibodies against Pestivirus by both blocking ELISA (bELISA) and virus neutralization tests (VNT). The prevalence of antibodies against pestiviruses was different both among species and regions. Seroprevalence by species was 30.0% (75/250) in Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), 7.0% (25/357) in fallow deer (Dama dama), 2.5% (10/401) in red deer (Cervus elaphus), 2.4% (8/330) in Iberian wil… Leer más

Jiménez-Ruiz S., Vicente J., Garcia-Bocanegra I., Cabezon O., Arnal MC., Balseiro A., Ruiz-Fons F., Gomez-Guillamon F., Lazaro S., Escribano F., Acevedo P., Dominguez L., Gortazar C., Fernandez de Luco D. and Risalde MA.

May 1st, 2021

Detection of environmental SARS-CoV-2 RNA in a high prevalence setting in Spain

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 68(3):1487-1492.

     Since March 2020, Spain (along with many other countries) has been severely affected by the ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the rapid spread of a new virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2). As part of global efforts to improve disease surveillance, we investigated how readily SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected in environmental samples collected from an isolated rural community in Spain with a high COVID-19 prevalence (6% of the population of 883 inhabitants). The first diagnosis of COVID-19-compatible symptoms in the village was recorded on March 3, 2020 and the last known active case resolved on June 5, 2020. By May 15, two months after strict movement constraints were imposed ("lockd… Leer más

Fernandez de Mera IG., Rodriguez del Rio FJ., de la Fuente J., Perez-Sancho M., Hervas D., Moreno I., Dominguez M., Dominguez L. and Gortazar C.

May 1st, 2021

Modelling the effect of test-and-slaughter strategies to control bovine tuberculosis in endemic high prevalence herds

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 68(3):1205-1215.

     Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) prevalence substantially increased over the past two decades with relatively high impact on large dairy herds, raising the concern of regulatory authorities and industry stakeholders, and threatening animal and public health. Lack of resources, together with the economic and social consequences of whole‐herd stamping‐out, makes depopulation an impractical disease control alternative in these herds. The increase in bTB prevalence was associated with demographic and management changes in the dairy industry in Uruguay, reducing the efficacy of the current control programme (i.e. status quo) based on intradermal serial testing with caudal fold‐ and comparative‐cervical tuberculin test‐and&… Leer más

Picasso C., Alvarez J., VanderWaal K., Kinsley A., Gil A., Wells SJ. and Perez AM.

April 30th, 2021

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Infection in Eurasian Badger (Meles meles) and Cattle in Asturias, Spain

Animals 11(5):1294.

     The present work investigated the prevalence, spatial distribution, and temporal distribution of tuberculosis (TB) in free-ranging Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and cattle in Asturias (Atlantic Spain) during a 13-year follow-up. The study objective was to assess the role of badgers as a TB reservoir for cattle and other sympatric wild species in the region. Between 2008 and 2020, 673 badgers (98 trapped and 575 killed in road traffic accidents) in Asturias were necropsied, and their tissue samples were cultured for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolation. Serum samples were tested in an in-house indirect P22 ELISA to detect antibodies against the MTC. In parallel, data on MTC isolation and single intradermal tuberculin test … Leer más

Blanco-Vazquez C., Doria-Barral T., Romero B., Queipo M., Merediz I., Quiros P., Armenteros JA., Juste R., Dominguez L., Dominguez M., Casais R. and Balseiro A.

April 12nd, 2021

Population genomics and antimicrobial resistance dynamics of Escherichia coli in wastewater and river environments

Communications Biology 4(1):457.

     Aquatic environments are key niches for the emergence, evolution and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. However, the population diversity and the genetic elements that drive the dynamics of resistant bacteria in different aquatic environments are still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to understand the population genomics and evolutionary events of Escherichia coli resistant to clinically important antibiotics including aminoglycosides, in anthropogenic and natural water ecosystems. Here we show that less different E. coli sequence types (STs) are identified in wastewater than in rivers, albeit more resistant to antibiotics, and with significantly more plasmids/cell (6.36 vs 3.72). However, the genomic diversity within E. … Leer más

Delgado-Blas JF., Ovejero CM., David S., Montero N., Calero-Caceres W., Garcillan-Barcia MP., de la Cruz F., Muniesa M., Aanensen DM. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

April 10th, 2021

Description and implementation of an On-farm Wildlife Risk Mitigation Protocol at the wildlife-livestock interface: tuberculosis in Mediterranean environments

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 191:105346.

     Animal tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), is a zoonotic disease of global concern, and has a wide variety of wild and domestic reservoirs that can establish complex epidemiological systems. Of all the strategies employed to control TB, reducing the risks of interaction at the wildlife-livestock interface is a cornerstone. However, detailed protocols with which to assess and implement farm-specific preventive actions that can be employed against interactions with wildlife are lacking for extensive production systems. We describe an On-farm Wildlife Risk Mitigation Protocol that is applicable to beef cattle farming in Mediterranean environments in order to control the wildlife-livestock interac… Leer más

Martinez-Guijosa J., Lima-Barbero JF., Acevedo P., Cano-Terriza D., Jiménez-Ruiz S., Barasona JA., Boadella M., Garcia-Bocanegra I., Gortazar C. and Vicente J.

April 9th, 2021

Effect of Biscuit Flour and Fermented Defatted Alperujo Co-Administration on Intestinal Mucosa Morphology and Productive Performance in Laying Hens

Animals 11(4):1075.

     In this study, the effects of co‐administration with biscuit flour and fermented defatted “alperujo” (FDA) on gut health were evaluated in a batch of laying hens (Hy‐Line 2015) on a commercial farm. Animals were divided into two groups: control group and treatment group; and histological and morphometric analyses of all sections of the intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and rectum) were performed at 10, 18, 25, 50 and 75 weeks of age. During the whole productive period, a decrease in the mortality rate (p = 0.01) was observed in treated hens, as well as an increase in the number of eggs produced (p < 0.001), their size (p < 0.025), and weight (p < 0.024). In the early and late stages of production (10, 18 and 50 weeks), … Leer más

Porras N., Rebollada A., Barcena C., Mayoral-Alegre F., Lomillos JM., Dominguez L. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

April 7th, 2021

Spoligotype-specific risk of finding lesions in tissues from cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis

BMC Veterinary Research 17(1):148.

     Although the pathogenic effect of members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in susceptible hosts is well known, differences in clinical signs and pathological findings observed in infected animals have been reported, likely due to a combination of host and pathogen-related factors. Here, we investigated whether Mycobacterium bovis strains belonging to different spoligotypes were associated with a higher risk of occurrence of visible/more severe lesions in target organs (lungs and/or lymph nodes) from infected animals. A large collection of 8889 samples belonging to cattle were classified depending on the presence/absence of tuberculosis-like lesions and its degree of severity. All samples were subjected to culture irrespective of th… Leer más

Gómez-Buendía A., Romero B., Bezos J., Lozano F., de Juan L. and Alvarez J..

April 1st, 2021

Polyresistant Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Human and Sympatric Sheep, Spain, 2017-2018

Emerging Infectious Diseases 27(4):1241-1243.

     The main etiologic agent of tuberculosis (TB) in livestock is Mycobacterium bovis; human TB cases caused by M. bovis are rare. Analysis of a TB outbreak caused by polyresistant M. bovis involving a human and sympatric sheep in Spain suggests local circulation of drug-resistant M. bovis strains among livestock… Leer más

Perez del Val B., Romero B., Tortola MT., Herrera-Leon L., Pozo P., Mercader I., Saez-Llorente JL., Domingo M. and Vidal E.

April 1st, 2021

Evaluation of the performance of slaughterhouse surveillance for bovine tuberculosis detection in Castilla y Leon, Spain

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 189:105307.

     Post-mortem inspection (PMI) of routinely slaughtered cattle in abattoirs is an extremely valuable tool for detecting bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infected herds that can supplement active surveillance activities. However, its true performance is difficult to assess due to the multiple factors that may affect it. Here, we determined relative efficiencies in the detection of bTB-compatible lesions and probabilities of subsequent laboratory confirmation of abattoirs located in Castilla y Leon, one of the regions with the largest cattle population in Spain, between 2010 and 2017. The slaughtered animal population was split based on the results of the ante-mortem tests (reactors or non-reactors), and two generalized linear multivariable mixed mode… Leer más

Pozo P., Cespedes-Cardenas N., Bezos J., Romero B., Grau A., Nacar J., Saez-Llorente JL., Minguez O. and Alvarez J..

April 1st, 2021

Antibiotic use in the COVID-19 crisis in Spain

Clinical Microbiology And Infection 27(4):646-647.

     Before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, antimicrobial resistance was the world`s most pressing health crisis. The United Nations, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Center for Disease Control and Prevention have made antimicrobial resistance a top priority, establishing a task force in the G-20 and organizing a joint program initiative on antimicrobial resistance including countries from al over the world [1]. However, with the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus pandemic in January 2020, all efforts are now focused on COVID-19, including controlling infections and developing vaccines… Leer más

Gonzalez-Zorn B.

March 30th, 2021

Towards a Better and Harmonized Education in Antimicrobial Stewardship in European Veterinary Curricula

Antibiotics 10(4):364.

     Education in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) in veterinary medicine is essential to foster responsible antimicrobial use and control of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animals. AMS is listed by the EU and international organizations among the basic `Day One Competences` required of veterinary students upon graduation. Our aim was to evaluate the quality of education of European veterinary students in AMS. We distributed a 27-item survey addressing the perceptions of preparedness and acquired skills on key topics related to AMS to final-year veterinary students in Europe. We collected 3423 complete answers from 89 veterinary schools in 30 countries. Selection of treatment strategies and awareness of emerging AMR problems were markedly diff… Leer más

Espinosa-Gongora C., Rem Jessen L., James-Dyar O., Bousquet-Melou A., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Pulcini C., Re G., Schwarz S., Timofte D., Toutain PL., Guardabassi L. and PREPARE-VET Working Group.

March 17th, 2021

Transmission of Similar Mcr-1 Carrying Plasmids among Different Escherichia coli Lineages Isolated from Livestock and the Farmer

Antibiotics 10(3):313.

     Colistin use has mostly been stopped in human medicine, due to its toxicity. However, nowadays, it still is used as a last-resort antibiotic to treat hospital infections caused by multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae. On the contrary, colistin has been used in veterinary medicine until recently. In this study, 210 fecal samples from pigs (n = 57), calves (n = 152), and the farmer (n = 1) were collected from a farm where E. coli harboring mcr-1–mcr-3 was previously detected. Samples were plated, and mcr-genes presence was confirmed by multiplex-PCR. Hybrid sequencing which determined the presence and location of mcr-1, other antibiotic resistance genes, and virulence factors. Eighteen colistin resistant isolates (13 from calves, four from… Leer más

Vines J., Cusco A., Napp S., Alvarez J., Saez-Llorente JL., Rosas-Rodoreda M., Francino O. and Migura-Garcia L.

March 10th, 2021

High Doses of Inactivated African Swine Fever Virus Are Safe, but Do Not Confer Protection against a Virulent Challenge

Vaccines 9(3):242.

     Abstract: African swine fever (ASF) is currently the major concern of the global swine industry, as a consequence of which a reconsideration of the containment and prevention measures taken to date is urgently required. A great interest in developing an effective and safe vaccine against ASF virus (ASFV) infection has, therefore, recently appeared. The objective of the present study
is to test an inactivated ASFV preparation under a vaccination strategy that has not previously been tested in order to improve its protective effect. The following have been considered: (i) virus inactivation by using a low binary ethyleneimine (BEI) concentration at a low temperature, (ii) the use of new and strong adjuvants; (iii) the use of very high … Leer más

Cadenas-Fernández E., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., van den Born E., Kosowska A., van Kilsdonk E., Fernandez-Pacheco P., Gallardo C., Arias M. and Barasona JA..

March 8th, 2021

Globetrotting strangles: the unbridled national and international transmission of Streptococcus equi between horses

Microbial Genomics 7(3):mgen000528.

     The equine disease strangles, which is characterized by the formation of abscesses in the lymph nodes of the head and neck, is one of the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases of horses around the world. The causal agent, Streptococcus equi subspecies equi , establishes a persistent infection in approximately 10 % of animals that recover from the acute disease. Such ‘carrier’ animals appear healthy and are rarely identified during routine veterinary examinations pre-purchase or transit, but can transmit S. equi to naïve animals initiating new episodes of disease. Here, we report the analysis and visualization of phylogenomic and epidemiological data for 670 isolates of S. equi recovered from 19 different countries using a new … Leer más

Mitchell C., Steward KF., Charbonneau ARL., Walsh S., Wilson H., Timoney JF., Wernery U., Joseph M., Craig D., van Maanen K., Hoogkamer-van Gennep A., Leon A., Witkowski L., Rzewuska M., Stefanska I., Zychska M., van Loon G., Cursons R., Patty O., Acke E., Gilkerson JR., El-Hage C., Allen J., Bannai H., Kinoshita Y., Niwa H., Becu T., Pringle J., Guss B., Bose R., Abbott Y., Katz L., Leggett B., Buckley TC., Blum SE., Cruz F., Fernadez-Ros A., Marotti Campi MC., Preziuso S., Robinson C., Newton JR., Schofield E., Brooke B., Boursnell M., de Brauwere N., Kirton R., Barton CK., Abudahab K., Taylor B., Yeats CA., Goater R., Aanensen DM., Harris SR., Parkhill J., Holden MTG. and Waller AS.

March 8th, 2021

The Plasmid-Mediated Kluyvera-Like arnBCADTEF Operon Confers Colistin (Hetero)Resistance to Escherichia coli

Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy 65(5):e00091-21.

     The use of colistin as a last resort antimicrobial is compromised by the emergence of resistant enterobacteria with acquired determinants like mcr genes, mutations that activate the PmrAB system and by still unknown mechanisms. This work analyzed 74 E. coli isolates from healthy swine, turkey or bovine, characterizing their colistin resistance determinants. The mcr-1 gene, detected in 69 isolates, was the main determinant found among which 45% were carried by highly mobile plasmids, followed by four strains lacking previously known resistance determinants or two with mcr-4 (one in addition to mcr-1), whose phenotypes were not transferred by conjugation. Although a fraction of isolates carrying mcr-1 or mcr-4 genes also presented missense po… Leer más

Gallardo A., Iglesias M., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Hernandez M., Miguela-Villoldo P., Gutierrez G., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., Dominguez L. and Quesada A.

March 1st, 2021

Impact of nurse sows on influenza A virus transmission in pigs under field conditions

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 188:105257.

     Piglets prior to weaning play a central role in maintaining influenza infections in breeding herds and the use of nurse sows is a common practice to adopt piglets that fall behind and that otherwise would die. Transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) from nurse sows to adopted pigs has been reported experimentally, however, the importance of this route of transmission under field conditions has not yet been elucidated. A cohort study to assess the IAV status in nurse and control sows and their respective litters was carried out in three influenza positive breed-to-wean farms. A total of 94 control and 90 nurse sows were sampled by collecting udder skin wipes and oral swabs at enrollment (∼ 5–7 days after farrowing) and at weaning. Six … Leer más

Garrido Mantilla J., Sanhueza J., Alvarez J., Culhane MR., Davies P., Allerson MW. and Torremorel M.

March 1st, 2021

Efficacy of a Salmonella enterica serovar Abortusovis (S. Abortusovis) inactivated vaccine in experimentally infected gestating ewes

Research In Veterinary Science 135:486-494.

     Salmonella enterica serovar Abortusovis (S. Abortusovis) infection is one of the most important causes of infectious late-term abortion as well as birth of weak lambs in sheep in many countries throughout the world. Implementation of protocols based on the application of effective vaccines is one of the most effective approaches for controlling this disease, but variable efficacy has been reported, possibly related to factors associated with the host, the vaccine, the parameters used for determining efficacy and the challenge protocols. In this context, a new commercial inactivated vaccine (INMEVA; Laboratorios Hipra S.A., Spain) was evaluated in 20 control and 17 vaccinated gestating ewes, subcutaneously challenged at 90 days of gest… Leer más

Garcia-Seco T., Montbrau C., Fontseca M., March R., Sitja M., Dominguez L. and Bezos J..

February 26th, 2021

Integron activity accelerates the evolution of antibiotic resistance

ELife 10:e62474.

     Mobile integrons are widespread genetic platforms that allow bacteria to modulate the expression of antibiotic resistance cassettes by shuffling their position from a common promoter. Antibiotic stress induces the expression of an integrase that excises and integrates cassettes, and this unique recombination and expression system is thought to allow bacteria to ‘evolve on demand’ in response to antibiotic pressure. To test this hypothesis, we inserted a custom three-cassette integron into Pseudomonas aeruginosa and used experimental evolution to measure the impact of integrase activity on adaptation to gentamicin. Crucially, integrase activity accelerated evolution by increasing the expression of a gentamicin resistance cassette through dup… Leer más

Souque C., Escudero JA. and MacLean RC.

February 5th, 2021

Assessing red deer hunting management in the Iberian Peninsula: the importance of longitudinal studies

PeerJ 9:e10872.

     Understanding the dynamics of a wildlife population in relation to hunting strategies is essential to achieve sustainable management. We used monitoring data over 25 years from two red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations with different management (with and without supplemental feeding) in South Central Spain to: (i) characterise the density dependence of population dynamics under contrasted management, and (ii) provide the basis for sustainable extraction by considering the theoretical maximum sustainable yield (MSYt) as the reference. The red deer population displayed a typical management reactive culling approach (‘saw-tooth-like’ curves), with occasional strong annual harvests but not occurring on a regular basis. Interestingly, we found r… Leer más

Carpio-Camargo AJ., Barasona JA., Acevedo O., Fierro Y., Gortazar C., Vigal C., Moreno A. and Vicente J.

January 27th, 2021

African Swine Fever

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 7:632292.

     The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest… Leer más

Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Laddomada A. and Martinez-Aviles M.

January 22nd, 2021

Use of Network Analysis and Spread Models to Target Control Actions for Bovine Tuberculosis in a State from Brazil

Microorganisms 9(2):227.

     Livestock movements create complex dynamic interactions among premises that can be represented, interpreted, and used for epidemiological purposes. These movements are a very important part of the production chain but may also contribute to the spread of infectious diseases through the transfer of infected animals over large distances. Social network analysis (SNA) can be used to characterize cattle trade patterns and to identify highly connected premises that may act as hubs in the movement network, which could be subjected to targeted control measures in order to reduce the transmission of communicable diseases such as bovine tuberculosis (TB). Here, we analyzed data on cattle movement and slaughterhouse surveillance for detection of TB-l… Leer más

Cespedes-Cardenas N., Pozo P., Nunes-Lopes FP., Grisi-Filho JHH. and Alvarez J..

January 21st, 2021

Direct PCR on tissue samples to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: an alternative to the bacteriological culture

Journal Of Clinical Microbiology 59(2):e01404-20.

     Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an ongoing issue in several countries within the European Union (EU). Microbiological culture is the official confirmation technique for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) members in bovine tissues, but several methodological issues, such as moderate sensitivity and long incubation times, require the development of more sensitive and rapid techniques. This study evaluates the analytical and diagnostic performance, comparatively to culture, of a real-time PCR targeting the MTBC-specific IS6110 transposon using a panel of bovine tissue samples sourced from the Spanish bTB eradication campaign. Robustness and repeatability were evaluated in an inter-laboratory trial between EU National Refere… Leer más

Lorente-Leal V., Liandris E., Pacciarini M., Botelho A., Kenny K., Loyo B., Fernandez R., Bezos J., Dominguez L., de Juan L. and Romero B..

January 15th, 2021

Non-Invasive Method to Detect Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Wild Boar by Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds Obtained from Feces with an Electronic Nose System

Sensors 21(2):584.

     More effective methods to detect bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, in wildlife, is of paramount importance for preventing disease spread to other wild animals, livestock, and human beings. In this study, we analyzed the volatile organic compounds emitted by fecal samples collected from free-ranging wild boar captured in Doñana National Park, Spain, with an electronic nose system based on organically-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The animals were separated by the age group for performing the analysis. Adult (>24 months) and sub-adult (12–24 months) animals were anesthetized before sample collection, whereas the juvenile (<12 months) animals were manually restrained while collecting the sample. Good accuracy was obtain… Leer más

Beleno-Saenz KJ., Caceres-Tarazona JM., Nol P., Jaimes-Mogollon AL., Gualdron-Guerrero OE., Duran-Acevedo CM., Barasona JA., Vicente J., Torres MJ., Welearegay TG., Osterlund L., Rhyan J. and Ionescu F.

January 1st, 2021

Resistance to colistin and production of extended-spectrum Beta-lactamases and/or AmpC enzymes in Salmonella isolates collected from healthy pigs in Northwest Spain in two periods: 2008-2009 and 2018

International Journal Of Food Microbiology 338:108967.

     Salmonellosis is a common subclinical infection in pigs and therefore apparently healthy animals may represent a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella for humans. This study estimates and characterizes resistance to two classes of antimicrobials considered of the highest priority within the critically important antimicrobials for humans, i.e. colistin (CR) and 3rd generation cephalosporins (3GC), on a collection of Salmonella isolates from pigs from two periods: between 2008 and 09, when colistin was massively used; and in 2018, after three years under a National Plan against Antibiotic Resistance. Prevalence of CR was low (6 out of 625; 0.96%; 95%CI: 0.44-2.1) in 2008-09 and associated mostly to the mcr-1 gene, which was detected in… Leer más

Sevilla E., Vico JP., Delgado-Blas JF., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Marin CM., Uruen C., Martin-Burriel I., Bolea R. and Mainar-Jaime RC.

Science Publication
ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 250 SUAT 61 SUAT 15
2 ICM 237 ZTA 53 MYC 11
3 MYC 227 MYC 48 SAP 11
4 SUAT 219 ICM 40 ZTA 6
5 NED 75 SAP 31 ICM 4
  VISAVET 1124 315 55

Impact Factor Average
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 3.907 ZTA 5.359 ZTA 6.183
2 SAP 3.818 SUAT 4.227 SAP 6.06
3 SUAT 2.987 SAP 4.095 NED 4.3
4 MYC 2.8 NED 3.858 SUAT 4.287
5 DICM 2.776 ICM 3.798 MYC 3.118
VISAVET 3.284 4.885 6.794

ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo.
1 Transbound Emerg Dis 93 Front Vet Sci 35
2 Vet Microbiol 88 Transbound Emerg Dis 32
3 Prev Vet Med 77 Animals 15
4 Front Vet Sci 61 Res Vet Sci 14
5 PLoS ONE 56 Sci Rep 14
  All journals 354   All journals 39