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SCI scientific publications 2020

December 16th, 2020

Distinct African Swine Fever Virus Shedding in Wild Boar Infected with Virulent and Attenuated Isolates

Vaccines 8(4):767.

     Abstract: Since the reappearance of African swine fever virus (ASFV), the disease has spread in an unprecedented animal pandemic in Eurasia. ASF currently constitutes the greatest global problem for the swine industry. The wild boar (Sus scrofa) in which the pathogen has established wild self-sustaining cycles, is a key reservoir for ASFV, signifying that there is an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine against this virus. Current scientific debate addresses whether live attenuated vaccines (LAVs), which have shown promising results in cross-protection of susceptible hosts, may be feasible for vaccinations carried out owing to safety concerns. The objective of this study was, therefore, to compare the ASFV shedding in wild boar infec… Leer más

Kosowska A., Cadenas-Fernández E., Barroso-Arevalo S., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. and Barasona JA..

December 15th, 2020

Primary and promiscuous functions coexist during evolutionary innovation through whole protein domain acquisitions

ELife 9:e58061.

     Abstract Molecular examples of evolutionary innovation are scarce and generally involve point mutations. Innovation can occur through larger rearrangements, but here experimental data is extremely limited. Integron integrases innovated from double-strand- toward single-strand-DNA recombination through the acquisition of the I2 a-helix. To investigate how this transition was possible, we have evolved integrase IntI1 to what should correspond to an early innovation state by selecting for its ancestral activity. Using synonymous alleles to enlarge sequence space exploration, we have retrieved 13 mutations affecting both I2 and the multimerization domains of
IntI1. We circumvented epistasis constraints among them using a combinatorial l… Leer más

Escudero JA., Nivina A., Kemble HE., Loot C., Tenaillon O. and Mazel D.

December 10th, 2020

Global emergence and evolutionary dynamics of bluetongue virus

Scientific Reports 10(1):21677.

     Bluetongue virus (BTV) epidemics are responsible for worldwide economic losses of up to US$ 3 billion. Understanding the global evolutionary epidemiology of BTV is critical in designing intervention programs. Here we employed phylodynamic models to quantify the evolutionary characteristics, spatiotemporal origins, and multi-host transmission dynamics of BTV across the globe. We inferred that goats are the ancestral hosts for BTV but are less likely to be important for cross-species transmission, sheep and cattle continue to be important for the transmission and maintenance of infection between other species. Our models pointed to China and India, countries with the highest population of goats, as the likely ancestral country for BTV emergen… Leer más

Alkhamis M., Aguilar-Vega C., Fountain-Jones NM., Lin K., Perez AM. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

December 4th, 2020

Histopathological and microbiological study of porcine lymphadenitis: contributions to diagnosis and control of the disease

Porcine Health Management 6(1):36.

     Tuberculosis like lesions (TBL) in free-range pigs are characterised by presenting a marked heterogeneity in pathology and microbiology features, with a notorious role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), Trueperella pyogenes and different Streptococcus species. However, the capacity of these microorganism to spread to different organic cavities leading to a generalised disease is unknown. Therefore, this study evaluated the organic distribution of these agents in free-range pig carcasses whole condemned due to generalised TBL.A total of 37 totally condemned animals were analysed, and samples of lymph nodes and organs were obtained (n = 262) and subjected to histopathological and microbiological examination. In addition, T. pyogenes… Leer más

Cardoso-Toset F., Gomez-Laguna J., Gomez-Gascon L., Rodriguez-Gomez IM., Galan-Relaño A., Carrasco L., Tarradas C., Vela AI. and Luque I.

December 3rd, 2020

Molecular detection of extended spectrum B-lactamase genes in Escherichia coli clinical isolates from diarrhoeic children in Kano, Nigeria

PLoS ONE 15(12):e0243130.

     The increase in antimicrobial resistance in developed and developing countries is a global public health challenge. In this context β-lactamase production is a major contributing factor to resistance globally. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of phenotypic and genotypic extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in 296 E. coli isolates recovered from diarrhoeic children younger than five years in Kano whose susceptibility profile against 7 antimicrobials had been determined. The E. coli isolates were subjected to double disc synergy test for phenotypic ESBLs detection and ESBL associated genes (blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV) were detected using conventional PCR. Phenotypically, 12.8% (38/296) E. coli isolates presen… Leer más

Saka KH., Garcia-Soto S., Dabo NT., Lopez-Chavarrias V., Muhammad B., Ugarte-Ruiz M. and Alvarez J..

November 29th, 2020

Computer Vision Applied to Detect Lethargy through Animal Motion Monitoring: A Trial on African Swine Fever in Wild Boar

Animals 10(12):E2241.

     Early detection of infectious diseases is the most cost-effective strategy in disease surveillance for reducing the risk of outbreaks. Latest deep learning and computer vision improvements are powerful tools that potentially open up a new field of research in epidemiology and disease control. These techniques were used here to develop an algorithm aimed to track and compute animal motion in real time. This algorithm was used in experimental trials in order to assess African swine fever (ASF) infection course in Eurasian wild boar. Overall, the outcomes showed negative correlation between motion reduction and fever caused by ASF infection. In addition, infected animals computed significant lower movements compared to uninfected animals. The … Leer más

Fernandez-Carrion E., Barasona JA., Sanchez A., Jurado C., Cadenas-Fernández E. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

November 26th, 2020

A one health framework to estimate the cost of antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial Resistance And Infection Control 9(1):187.

     Objectives/purpose: The costs attributable to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remain theoretical and largely unspecified. Current figures fail to capture the full health and economic burden caused by AMR across human, animal, and environmental health; historically many studies have considered only direct costs associated with human infection from a hospital perspective, primarily from high-income countries. The Global Antimicrobial Resistance Platform for ONE-Burden Estimates (GAP-ON€) network has developed a framework to help guide AMR costing exercises in any part of the world as a first step towards more comprehensive analyses for comparing AMR interventions at the local level as well as more harmonized analyses for quantifying the full e… Leer más

Morel CM., Alm RA., Ardal C., Bandera A., Bruno GM., Carrara E., Colombo GL., de Kraker MEA., Essack S., Frost I., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Goossens H., Guardabassi L., Harbarth S., Jorgensen PS., Kanj SS., Kostyanev T., Laxminarayan R., Leonard F., Hara GL., Mendelson M., Mikulska M., Mutters NT., Outterson K., Rodriguez-Bano J., Tacconelli E., Scudeller L. and GAP-ONE network.

November 13rd, 2020

Quantifying Antimicrobial Exposure in Dogs From a Longitudinal Study

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 7:545.

     Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials (AMR) is a growing public health threat, and exposure to antimicrobials (AMs) is, on the whole, a major risk factor for the occurrence of AMR. During the past decade, a limited number of studies about AM exposure in dogs have been published, showing a noticeable diversity regarding numerators (AMU), denominators (population at risk), and indicators. The aim of this study is to show that metrics based on the most easily recorded data about treatments and a follow-up design are a promising method for a preliminary assessment of AM exposure in companion animals when more detailed data are not available. To quantify AM exposure, two simple indicators were used: the number of treatments (Ts) per 100 dogs an… Leer más

Mendez M. and Moreno MA.

November 10th, 2020

Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium caprae in a camel (Camelus dromedarius)

BMC Veterinary Research 16(1):435.

Animal tuberculosis (TB) is distributed worldwide and has a wide range of wild and domestic reservoirs. Few studies concerning TB in camelids have been published in the last decade, particularly as regards Old World Camelids (OWC), but the increase in reports of TB outbreaks in these species in recent years suggests a high susceptibility to the infection.
Case presentation
We studied a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) herd (n = 24) in which a Mycobacterium caprae infection was detected. The TB infection was confirmed in one animal at necropsy through the detection of TB lesions, mainly in the abdominal organs, and the subsequent isolation of M. caprae (SB0157 spoligotype). The whole herd was … Leer más

Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Romero B., Rodriguez-Bertos A., Roy A., Ortega J., de Juan L., Moreno I., Dominguez M., Dominguez L. and Bezos J..

November 9th, 2020

Complementarity of selective culture and qPCR for colistin resistance screening in fresh and frozen pig caecum samples

Frontiers In Microbiology 11:572712.

     Retrospective studies involving the screening of frozen stored collections of samples are commonplace when a new threat emerges, but it has been demonstrated that the freeze-thaw process can affect bacterial viability. The study of colistin-resistant bacteria in human and animal samples is an example of this issue. In this study we compared culture-based and PCR-based methods for analysing both relative occurrence and diversity of colistin-resistant bacteria in caecal samples to determine the most appropriate method for frozen samples. Thus, 272 isolates from the caecal contents of healthy pigs were tested before and after a six-month freezing period. A selective medium was used when traditional isolation of colistin-resistant bacteria was … Leer más

Miguela-Villoldo P., Moreno MA., Hernandez M., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., Gallardo A., Borge C., Quesada A., Dominguez L. and Ugarte-Ruiz M..

November 1st, 2020

Forensic cases of suspected dog and cat abuse in the Community of Madrid (Spain), 2014-2019

Forensic Science International 316:110522.

     Companion animal abuse is an issue that concerns not only veterinarians and law enforcement agencies but also society in general. Animals that die under suspicious or violent circumstances should be submitted to reference laboratories for a postmortem examination by veterinary forensic pathologists trained to recognize animal abuse. Nevertheless, the low notification rate of such cases in Spain may explain the country’s lag in the development of veterinary forensics and the limited information available on animal abuse epidemiology in comparison with other countries. By sharing information among the entities involved in recognizing animal abuse, we can better address these issues, thus improving veterinary forensics in Spain (and elsewhere)… Leer más

Rebollada A., Barcena C., Mayoral-Alegre F., Garcia-Real I., Dominguez L. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

November 1st, 2020

Extensive antimicrobial resistance mobilization via multicopy plasmid encapsidation mediated by temperate phages

The Journal Of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 75(11):3173-3180.

     Objectives: To investigate the relevance of multicopy plasmids in antimicrobial resistance and assess their mobilization mediated by phage particles.
Methods: Several databases with complete sequences of plasmids and annotated genes were analysed. The 16S methyltransferase gene armA conferring high-level aminoglycoside resistance was used as a marker in eight different plasmids, from different incompatibility groups, and with differing sizes and plasmid copy numbers. All plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli bearing one of four different lysogenic phages. Upon induction, encapsidation of armA in phage particles was evaluated using qRT-PCR and Southern blotting.
Results: Multicopy plasmids carry a vast set of emerging… Leer más

Rodriguez-Campoo R., Serna-Bernaldo C., Ares M., Matamoros BR., Delgado-Blas JF., Montero N., Bernabe-Balas C., Wedel EF., Mendez IS., Muniesa M. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

November 1st, 2020

Phylogenetic analysis and geographical distribution of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi sequences from horses residing in Spain

Ticks And Tick-Borne Diseases 11(6):101521.

     The intraerythrocytic protozoans Theileria equi and Babesia caballi are the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis (EP), one of the most important equine tick-borne diseases due to its significant impact on global international horse trade. Although EP is known to be endemic in Spain, previous phylogenetic studies have only been conducted for limited geographical regions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and distribution of these parasite species nationwide. This was performed by amplification of the 18S small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene from 100 EP positive equine blood samples using a nested PCR protocol, and sequencing the obtained amplicons. Seventy-seven T. equi and six B. caballi isolate… Leer más

Camino E., Cruz F., de Juan L., Dominguez L., Shiels B. and Coultous RM.

November 1st, 2020

Dietary Supplementation with Fermented Defatted Alperujo Induces Modifications of the Intestinal Mucosa and Cecal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens

Poultry Science 99(11):5308-5315.

     Nutraceuticals are not only nutritionally beneficial for animals, but also their use as feed supplements may reduce environmental contamination. The effect of fermented defatted ‘alperujo’, an olive oil by-product, supplementation on the intestinal health of broiler chickens was assessed by analyzing the intestinal mucosal morphology of the duodenum and the cecum. The microbiota of the cecum was also characterized by analyzing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. Supplemented broilers from 14 to 35 days old showed an increase in villus height in the duodenum. This increase likely improved digestibility and absorption capacity during growth, leading to the observed increase in body weight at the day 35 of l… Leer más

Rebollada A., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Hernandez M., Miguela-Villoldo P., Abad D., Cuesta-Alvaro P., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., de Juan L., Dominguez L. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

November 1st, 2020

Was ancient Rome the perfect environment for zoonoses transmission?

Travel Medicine And Infectious Disease 38:101740.

     Environmental and cultural factors driving the emergence and the maintenance of transmissible diseases are numerous. Those specific for the most common zoonoses have received little attention in historic studies, despite they were probably a heavy component of the total disease burden in antiquity and, therefore, a keystone of History. We want to provide a deductive approach to some of them, despite most of the possible associations between risk or predisposing factors and specific diseases are merely theoretical. However, since the most common zoonoses are still a heavy disease burden, they probably were an important part of the roman “metropolitan disease pool”… Leer más

Briones V. and Perez-Sancho M..

October 31st, 2020

Host or pathogen-related factors in COVID-19 severity?

The Lancet 396(10260):1396-1397.

     Lucy Okell and colleagues1 observed that the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently in marked decline in many countries. Okell and colleagues suggest two possible explanations for this decline, namely the effect of lockdowns, physical distancing, and other interventions; or, alternatively, herd immunity. After analysing trends in cumulative deaths over time in many European countries that went into lockdown at different stages of their epidemic, and data obtained from serology studies on the proportion of the population that had the infection previously, Okell and colleagues found few data to support an explanation that relies on herd immunity… Leer más

Gortazar C., Rodriguez del Rio FJ., Dominguez L. and de la Fuente J.

October 29th, 2020

Antimicrobial Resistance of Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus Isolates Recovered in a Veterinary University Hospital

Antibiotics 9(11):E752.

     The Staphylococcus pseudintermedius group (SIG) is an emerging threat in veterinary medicine, particularly methicillin-resistant (MRSP) isolates, which are frequently associated with multidrug resistance. Reliable identification of SIG members is critical to establish correct antimicrobial treatments. However, information on the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of MRSP in some regions is still limited. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial resistance of SIG isolates recovered from animals at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Complutense University of Madrid (Spain) during a 10-year period (2007-2016). A total of 139 selected Staphylococcus isolates were subjected to species-level identification by differ… Leer más

Perez-Sancho M., Alvarez-Perez S., Garcia-Seco T., Hernandez M., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., Dominguez L., Garcia ME. and Blanco JL.

October 28th, 2020

Genetic Determinants of Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin and Fluoroquinolone in Escherichia coli Isolated from Diseased Pigs in the United States

MSphere 5(5):e00990-20.

     Fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins are critically important antimicrobial classes for both human and veterinary medicine. We previously found a drastic increase in enrofloxacin resistance in clinical Escherichia coli isolates collected from diseased pigs from the United States over 10 years (2006 to 2016). However, the genetic determinants responsible for this increase have yet to be determined. The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize the genetic basis of resistance against fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin) and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ceftiofur) in swine E. coli isolates using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). blaCMY-2 (carried by IncA/C2, IncI1, and IncI2 plasmids), blaCTX-M (carried by IncF, IncHI2, and IncN pl… Leer más

Singh SH., Lim S., Hong S., Elnekave E., Johnson T., Rovira A., Vannucci F., Clayton JB., Perez AM. and Alvarez J..

October 21st, 2020

Reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium Cecal Colonisation and Improvement of Intestinal Health in Broilers Supplemented with Fermented Defatted `Alperujo`, an Olive Oil By-Product

Animals 10(10):1931.

     Salmonella spp. contaminates egg and poultry meat leading to foodborne infections in humans. The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains limit the use of antimicrobials. We aimed to determine the effects of the food supplement, fermented defatted ‘alperujo’, a modified olive-oil by-product, on Salmonella Typhimurium colonisation in broilers. One hundred and twenty 1-day-old broilers were divided into four experimental groups: 2 control groups and 2 treated groups, and challenged with S. Typhimurium at day 7 or 21. On days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 of life, duodenum and caecum tissue samples were collected for histopathological and histomorphometric studies. Additionally, cecum content was collected for Salmonella spp. detection by cultu… Leer más

Rebollada A., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Hernandez M., Miguela-Villoldo P., Abad D., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., de Juan L., Dominguez L. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

October 13rd, 2020

Identifying Spanish Areas at More Risk of Monthly BTV Transmission with a Basic Reproduction Number Approach

Viruses-Basel 12(10):E1158.

     Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes a disease that is endemic in Spain and its two major biological vector species, C. imicola and the Obsoletus complex species, differ greatly in their ecology and distribution. Understanding the seasonality of BTV transmission in risk areas is key to improving surveillance and control programs, as well as to better understand the pathogen transmission networks between wildlife and livestock. Here, monthly risk transmission maps were generated using risk categories based on well-known BTV R0 equations and predicted abundances of the two most relevant vectors in Spain. Previously, Culicoides spp. predicted abundances in mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands were obtained using remote sensing data and random fore… Leer más

Aguilar-Vega C., Bosch J., Fernandez-Carrion E., Lucientes J. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

October 1st, 2020

Quantifying wildlife-livestock interactions and their spatio-temporal patterns: Is regular grid camera trapping a suitable approach?

Ecological Indicators 117:106565.

     Camera trapping use has increased significantly in ecological studies in recent decades due to its ability to register information about cryptic and/or elusive species and, more recently, due to its ability to derive population parameters, such as population abundance or density. For these latter applications, camera traps set in a regular grid pattern (CT-RG) are required to obtain representative information of the study area. The present work aims to assess the usefulness of the information collected through CT-RG to study interspecific interactions between animals, in terms of frequency of interaction and their spatiotemporal pattern. The results from CT-RG were compared with those obtained from GPS collars. For this latter methodology, … Leer más

Triguero-Ocana R., Vicente J., Palencia P., Laguna E. and Acevedo P.

September 25th, 2020

Protein metabolism and physical fitness are physiological determinants of body condition in Southern European carnivores

Scientific Reports 10(1):15755.

     The physiological significance of biometric body condition indices (bBCI) is poorly understood. We hypothesized that bBCI are composite metrics of nutritional physiology, physical fitness and health. To test this hypothesis, we first compared the performance of eight bBCI, using 434 Southern European carnivores from six species as a model system; and then identified, by non-destructive methods, the hematology and serum biochemistry correlates of three selected bBCI. Fulton’s K Index, Major Axis Regression Residuals and Scaled Mass Index were the only bBCI insensitive to the effect of sex and age. The most informative physiological parameters in explaining the variation of these bBCI were the albumin (Effect Size (ES) = − 1… Leer más

Santos N., Nakamura M., Rio-Maior H., Alvares F., Barasona JA., Rosalino LM., Santos MJ., Santos-Reis M., Ferreras P., Díaz-Ruiz F. and Monterroso P.

September 25th, 2020

Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated With Herds With an Increased Duration of Bovine Tuberculosis Breakdowns in Castilla y Leon, Spain (2010-2017)

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 7:545328.

     The persistence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in certain cattle herds is a major concern in countries pursuing disease eradication worldwide. The chronic nature of the disease, the lack of performance of diagnostic tools, and the presence of wildlife reservoirs may lead infected herds to require longer periods to achieve the officially tuberculosis-free (OTF) status. Here, we evaluated the impact of farm and breakdown characteristics on the probability of disease persistence in infected farms in Castilla y Leon, a bTB-endemic region of Spain, using survival and logistic regression models. Data from bTB breakdowns occurring in 3,550 bTB-positive herds detected in 2010–2017 were analyzed. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was fitt… Leer más

Pozo P., Romero B., Bezos J., Grau A., Nacar J., Saez-Llorente JL., Minguez O. and Alvarez J..

September 1st, 2020

Strength of association between isolation of Pasteurella multocida and consolidation lesions in ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis

Veterinary Microbiology 248:108823.

     This study investigated the association of Pasteurella multocida isolation and the molecular characteristics of the isolates with the presence of pneumonic lesions in lambs at slaughter to assess its importance as a causative agent of pneumonic pasteurellosis compared with Mannheimia haemolytica. P. multocida was isolated from the 13.9% and 2.7%, and M. haemolytica from the 36.4% and 26.8%, of lungs with and without lesions, respectively (P < 0.05). Both microorganisms were frequently coisolated (23.2% and 12.5% from lungs with and without lesions, respectively). Isolation of P. multocida alone exhibited greater strength of association with pneumonic lesions (OR 11.4; 95% CI 3.2–40.6) than that exhibited by M. haemolytica alone (OR 3.0; 95%… Leer más

Cid D., Pinto C., Dominguez L., Vela AI. and Fernandez-Garayzabal JF..

September 1st, 2020

Comparing serotyping with whole-genome sequencing for subtyping of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica: a large-scale analysis of 37 serotypes with a public health impact in the USA

Microbial Genomics 6(9):mgen000425.

     Serotyping has traditionally been used for subtyping of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates. However, its discriminatory power is limited, which impairs its use for epidemiological investigations of source attribution. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis allows more accurate subtyping of strains. However, because of the relative newness and cost of routine WGS, large-scale studies involving NTS WGS are still rare. We aimed to revisit the big picture of subtyping NTS with a public health impact by using traditional serotyping (i.e. reaction between antisera and surface antigens) and comparing the results with those obtained using WGS. For this purpose, we analysed 18 282 sequences of isolates belonging to 37 serotypes with a public he… Leer más

Elnekave E., Hong SL., Lim S., Johnson TJ., Perez AM. and Alvarez J..

September 1st, 2020

Accuracy of tuberculosis diagnostic tests in small ruminants: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 182:105102.

     Tuberculosis (TB) in small ruminants is a neglected disease despite its major impact on goat and sheep production and the global public health. The awareness of the role of small ruminants in the epidemiology of animal TB has increased in the last two decades, however, there is a lack of standardization of procedures and robust quantitative estimates on the accuracy of diagnostic TB tests in the scientific literature. To address this knowledge gap, all the available information regarding the use of ante-mortem diagnostic techniques in small ruminants was collected and summarized through a systematic review process. Furthermore, a random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to separately estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of c… Leer más

Roy A., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., de la Cruz ML., Dominguez L., Alvarez J. and Bezos J..

September 1st, 2020

Detection of antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis flaviviruses in breeding and sport horses from Spain

Ticks And Tick-Borne Diseases 11(5):101487.

     Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and louping-ill virus (LIV) are two closely related zoonotic flaviviruses leading to neurological diseases and belonging to the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) serocomplex. Both viruses are transmitted by the same ixodid tick vector, Ixodes ricinus. Due to global warming affecting vector biology and pathogen transmission, the viruses pose an emerging threat for public health in Europe and Asia. These flaviviruses share some hosts, like sheep, goats and humans, although the main hosts for LIV and TBEV are sheep and small rodents, respectively. Whereas LIV has been detected in Spanish sheep and goat herds, circulating antibodies against TBEV have only been reported in dogs and horses from particular regions … Leer más

Camino E., Schmid S., Weber F., Pozo P., de Juan L., Konig M. and Cruz F..

September 1st, 2020

Prevalence and trend analysis of antimicrobial resistance in clinical Escherichia coli isolates collected from diseased pigs in the USA between 2006 and 2016

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 67(5):1930-1941.

     Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging threat to both human and animal health. Antimicrobial use and resistance in food animal production including swine has received increased scrutiny as a source of resistant foodborne pathogens. Continuous surveillance of AMR in bacterial isolates of swine origin can guide in conservation of antimicrobials used in both human and swine medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and trends of the phenotypic AMR in Escherichia coli of swine origin isolated from clinical samples at the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic laboratory between 2006‐2016. The prevalence of resistance to ampicillin, tetracyclines and sulphadimethoxine remained greater than 50% throughout the peri… Leer más

Hayer SS., Rovira A., Olsen K., Johnson TJ., Vannucci F., Rendahl A., Perez AM. and Alvarez J..

August 22nd, 2020

Clinical Course and Gross Pathological Findings in Wild Boar Infected with a Highly Virulent Strain of African Swine Fever Virus Genotype II

Pathogens 9(9):688.

     African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable disease that in recent years has spread remarkably in Europe and Asia. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) plays a key role in the maintenance and spread of the pathogen. Here we examined gross pathology of infection in wild boar with a highly virulent, hemadsorbing genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) strain. To this end, six wild boars were intramuscularly inoculated with the 10 HAD50 Arm07 ASFV strain, and 11 wild boars were allowed to come into direct contact with the inoculated animals. No animals survived the infection. Clinical course, gross pathological findings and viral genome quantification by PCR in tissues did not differ between intramuscularly inoculated or contact-infected animals. Postmortem ana… Leer más

Rodriguez-Bertos A., Cadenas-Fernández E., Rebollada A., Porras N., Mayoral-Alegre F., Barreno-San Antolin L., Kosowska A., Tome-Sanchez I., Barasona JA. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

August 22nd, 2020

Involvement of hpap2 and dgkA Genes in Colistin Resistance Mediated by mcr Determinants

Antibiotics 9(9):E531.

     Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance (mcr) determinants are challenging the efficacy of polymyxins against Gram-negative pathogens. Among 10 mcr genes described so far, the major determinants mcr-1 and mcr-3 are found closely linked to hpap2 or dgkA genes, encoding a hypothetical phosphatidic acid phosphatase of type 2 (PAP2) and a diacylglycerol kinase, respectively, whose functions are still unknown. In this study, mcr-1, mcr-1–hpap2, mcr-3, and mcr-3–dgkA were expressed in Escherichia coli, and recombinant strains were analyzed to detect antimicrobial susceptibility and changes in the expression of genes involved in phospholipid metabolism. The mcr-1 or mcr-3 single genes were enough to drive growth on colistin selective media, although … Leer más

Gallardo A., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Hernandez M., Miguela-Villoldo P., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., Dominguez L. and Quesada A.

August 18th, 2020

Environmental determinants influencing anthrax distribution in Queen Elizabeth Protected Area, Western Uganda

PLoS ONE 15(8):e0237223.

     Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, a disease that primarily affects herbivorous animals, is a soil borne endospore-forming microbe. Environmental distribution of viable spores determines risky landscapes for herbivore exposure and subsequent anthrax outbreaks. Spore survival and longevity depends on suitable conditions in its environment. Anthrax is endemic in Queen Elizabeth Protected Area in western Uganda. Periodic historical outbreaks with significant wildlife losses date to 1950s, but B. anthracis ecological niche in the ecosystem is poorly understood. This study used the Maximum Entropy modeling algorithm method to predict suitable niche and environmental conditions that may support anthrax distribution and spore su… Leer más

Driciru M., Rwego IB., Ndimuligo SA., Travis DA., Mwakapeje ER., Craft M., Asiimwe B., Alvarez J., Ayebare S. and Pelican K.

August 12nd, 2020

Alpha- and gammaherpesviruses in stranded striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Spain: first molecular detection of gammaherpesvirus infection in central nervous system of odontocetes

BMC Veterinary Research 16(1):288.

     Background: Herpesvirus infections in cetaceans have always been attributed to the Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae subfamilies. To date, gammaherpesviruses have not been reported in the central nervous system of odontocetes.
Case presentation: A mass stranding of 14 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) occurred in Cantabria (Spain) on 18th May 2019. Tissue samples were collected and tested for herpesvirus using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and for cetacean morbillivirus using reverse transcription-PCR. Cetacean morbillivirus was not detected in any of the animals, while gammaherpesvirus was detected in nine male and one female dolphins. Three of these males were coinfected by alphaherpesviruses. Alphaherpesvi… Leer más

Vargas-Castro I., Crespo JL., Rivera B., Sanchez R., Marco-Cabedo V., Jimenez MA., Fayos M., Serdio A., Garcia-Parraga D. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

August 1st, 2020

Assessing the benefits of composting poultry manure in reducing antimicrobial residues, pathogenic bacteria, and antimicrobial resistance genes: a field-scale study

Environmental Science And Pollution Research 27(22):27738-27749.

     The poultry industry in the European Union produces 13 million tons of manure annually, which represents a major health and environmental challenge. Composting is an environmental-friendly technique for the management of manure, but there are few studies about antibiotic residues and antimicrobial resistances at a field scale. The goal of this study was to determine if the composting of poultry manure at a field scale would result in the reduction of antibiotic residues, pathogenic bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the final fertilizer product. A 10- week composting of poultry manure spiked with enrofloxacin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin was performed. The determination of antibiotics residues and 22 selected ARGs was ca… Leer más

Esperon F., Albero B., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Dominguez L., Carballo M., Tadeo JL., Delgado MM., Moreno MA. and de la Torre A.

July 17th, 2020

Information differences across spatial resolutions and scales for disease surveillance and analysis: The case of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil

PLoS ONE 15(7):e0235920.

     Nationwide disease surveillance at a high spatial resolution is desired for many infectious diseases, including Visceral Leishmaniasis. Statistical and mathematical models using data collected from surveillance activities often use a spatial resolution and scale either constrained by data availability or chosen arbitrarily. Sensitivity of model results to the choice of spatial resolution and scale is not, however, frequently evaluated. This study aims to determine if the choice of spatial resolution and scale are likely to impact statistical and mathematical analyses. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil is used as a case study. Probabilistic characteristics of disease incidence, representing a likely outcome in a model, are compared across spa… Leer más

Servadio JL., Machado A., Alvarez J., de Ferreira Lima FE., Vieira Alves R. and Convertino M.

July 7th, 2020

An Introductory Framework for Choosing Spatiotemporal Analytical Tools in Population-Level Eco-Epidemiological Research

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 7:339.

     Spatiotemporal visualization and analytical tools (SATs) are increasingly being applied to risk-based surveillance/monitoring of adverse health events affecting humans, animals, and ecosystems. Different disciplines use diverse SATs to address similar research questions. The juxtaposition of these diverse techniques provides a list of options for researchers who are new to population-level spatial eco-epidemiology. Here, we are conducting a narrative review to provide an overview of the multiple available SATs, and introducing a framework for choosing among them when addressing common research questions across disciplines. The framework is comprised of three stages: (a) pre-hypothesis testing stage, in which hypotheses regarding the spatial… Leer más

Kanankege K., Alvarez J., Zhang L. and Perez AM.

July 3rd, 2020

Evaluation of P22 antigenic complex for the immuno-diagnosis of tuberculosis in BCG vaccinated and unvaccinated goats

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 7:374.

     Current eradication strategies of tuberculosis (TB) in goats resemble bovine TB eradication programs and mainly relay on single and comparative intradermal tuberculin tests (SITT and CITT). TB vaccination has been proposed as a cost-effective option in high prevalent herds or countries were economic compensation for slaughter positive animals is not affordable. However, TB vaccination compromises the efficiency of TB standard diagnostic tests. In this study, the performance of a new diagnostic platform, based on the P22 antigenic complex, was assessed for skin test (ST), Interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) and serology under different TB scenarios. The sensitivity (Se) of diagnostic tests was assessed in TB infected goats from the same fa… Leer más

Arrieta-Villegas CC., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Bezos J., Grasa M., Vidal E., Mercader I., Singh M., Domingo M., de Juan L. and Perez del Val B.

June 25th, 2020

Positive attitudes towards feline obesity are strongly associated with ownership of obese cats

PLoS ONE 15(6):e0234190.

     Overweight and obesity (O&O) is a risk factor for several health conditions and can result in a shorter lifespan for cats. The objectives of this study were to investigate (a) cat owners` attitudes towards feline O&O and their associations with O&O in their cats; and (b) the risk factors for feline O&O and underweight, particularly those involving owner practice. An online survey comprising questions related to cat owners` attitudes towards feline O&O, owner-reported body weight and body condition of their cat, and potential risk factors for feline O&O was conducted. Primarily targeting the Australian population, the survey attracted 1,390 valid responses. In response to ten attitude-related questions, more participants (percentage range am… Leer más

Teng KT., McGreevy PD., Toribio JALML. and Dhand NK.

June 23rd, 2020

Spatial trends in Salmonella infection in pigs in Spain

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 7:345.

     Salmonella is one of the most important foodborne pathogens worldwide. Its main reservoirs are poultry and pigs, in which infection is endemic in many countries. Spain has one of the largest pig populations in the world. Even though Salmonella infection is commonly detected in pig farms, its spatial distribution at the national level is poorly understood. Here we aimed to report the spatial distribution of Salmonella-positive pig farms in Spain and investigate the presence of potential spatial trends over a 17-year period.
For this, data on samples from pigs tested for Salmonella in 2002-2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019 as part of the Spanish Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance programme, representing 3,730 farms were analysed… Leer más

Teng KT., Martinez-Aviles M., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Barcena C., de la Torre A., Lopez G., Moreno MA., Dominguez L. and Alvarez J..

June 22nd, 2020

MLVA-16 Genotyping of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Isolates From Different Animal Species in Egypt: Geographical Relatedness and the Mediterranean Lineage

Pathogens 9(6):E498.

     Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease in Egypt. However, there are limited data available on the genetic diversity of brucellae circulating in Egypt and other Mediterranean areas. One hundred and nine Brucella (B.) strains were isolated from different animal species in thirteen Egyptian governorates. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) analysis (MLVA-16) was employed to determine the geographical relatedness and the genetic diversity of a panel of selected Egyptian strains (n = 69), with strains originating from Italy (n = 49), Portugal (n = 52), Greece (n = 63), and Tunisia (n = 4). Egyptian B. melitensis strains clustered into two main clusters containing 21 genotypes. Egyptian B. abortus strains clustered into three mai… Leer más

Wareth G., El-Diasty M., Melzer F., Schmoock G., Moustafa SA., El-Beskawy M., Khater DF., Hamdy MER., Zaki HM., Ferreira AC., Ekateriniadou LV., Boukouvala E., Abdel-Glil MY., Menshawy AMS., Perez-Sancho M., Sakhria S., Pletz MW. and Neubauer H.

June 5th, 2020

Long-Term Determinants of Tuberculosis in the Ungulate Host Community of Doñana National Park

Pathogens 9(6):445.

     Animal tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in wild boar (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and cattle in south and central Spain. In order to clarify the processes that operate in the medium and long-term, we studied TB at the wildlife–livestock interface in Doñana National Park for 14 years (2006–2018) in relation to host density, stochastic factors (rainfall) and environmental features (e.g., aggregation points such as waterholes). Wild boar showed the highest prevalence of TB (76.7%), followed by red deer (42.5%), fallow deer (14.4%) and cattle (10.7%). We found evidence of relevant epidemiological processes which operate over the long-term and interact with host and community ecology. Interestingly, the effect of … Leer más

Barroso P., Barasona JA., Acevedo O., Palencia P., Carro F., Negro JJ., Torres MJ., Gortazar C., Soriguer RC. and Vicente J.

June 1st, 2020

High discrimination of Mycobacterium bovis isolates in Brazilian herds by spoligotyping

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 179:104976.

     Bovine tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), that leads to economic losses in infected herds and it is also considered an important zoonosis. The molecular typing methods of M. bovis isolates are fundamental for the bovine tuberculosis surveillance system, and spoligotyping is the standard genotyping technique for this species. Thus, the aim of the present study is to analyze the spatial and cluster distribution of M. bovis strains from several regions of Brazil through molecular typing. Spoligotyping technique was applied on 422 isolates identified as M. bovis, and Ripley`s K function was used to perform the spatial and cluster analysis of each identified profile. Forty-three (43) different profile… Leer más

Figueiredo-Rocha VC., de Souza-Filho AF., Yumi Ikuta C., Hildebrand e Grisi Filho JH., de Azevedo IM., Coelho-Mota PMP., de Juan L., Dominguez L., Romero B., Heinemann MB. and Ferreira-Neto JS.

May 29th, 2020

Environmental DNA: A Promising Factor for Tuberculosis Risk Assessment in Multi-Host Settings

PLoS ONE 15(5):e0233837.

     Attaining and maintaining the Official Tuberculosis Free status continues to be a challenge when several domestic and wild hosts contribute to the maintenance of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Local tuberculosis hotspots are sometimes identified in cattle in low-prevalence regions. We have, therefore, studied one such hotspot in depth in order to produce an epidemiological diagnosis. Host population size and MTC prevalence were estimated in selected wildlife and in livestock, while on-cattle environmental DNA detection was additionally used as a proxy for risk of exposure at the farm (herd) level. Positive skin test reactors were found on16 of the 24 cattle farms studied in the period 2012-2016. Although all goats tested nega… Leer más

Martinez-Guijosa J., Romero B., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Diez E., Boadella M., Balseiro A., Veiga M., Navarro D., Moreno I., Ferreres J., Dominguez M., Fernandez C., Dominguez L. and Gortazar C.

May 29th, 2020

Retrospective Spatial Analysis for African Swine Fever in Endemic Areas to Assess Interactions Between Susceptible Host Populations

PLoS ONE 15(5):e0233473.

     African Swine Fever (ASF) is one of the most complex and significant diseases from a sanitary-economic perspective currently affecting the world`s swine-farming industry. ASF has been endemic in Sardinia (Italy) since 1978, and several control and eradication programmes have met with limited success. In this traditional ASF endemic area, there are three susceptible host populations for this virus sharing the same habitat: wild boar, farmed domestic pigs and non-registered free-ranging pigs (known as "brado" animals). The main goal of this study was to determine and predict fine-scale spatial interactions of this multi-host system in relation to the epidemiology of ASF in the main endemic area of Sardinia, Montes-Orgosolo. To this end, simul… Leer más

Bosch J., Barasona JA., Cadenas-Fernández E., Jurado C., Pintore A., Denurra D., Cherchi M., Vicente J. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

May 13rd, 2020

Lessons Learned From the Stakeholder Engagement in Research: Application of Spatial Analytical Tools in One Health Problems

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 7:254.

     Stakeholder engagement in research is widely advocated as a tool to integrate diverse knowledge and perspectives in the management of health threats while addressing potential conflicts of interest. Although guidelines for stakeholder engagement exist in public health and environmental sciences, the feasibility of actionable decisions based on scientific analyses and the lessons learned from the stakeholder engagement in the process co-creation of knowledge have been rarely discussed in One Health literature and veterinary sciences. Risk maps and risk regionalization using spatiotemporal epidemiological/analytical tools are known to improve risk perception and communication. Risk maps are useful when informing policy and management decision… Leer más

Kanankege K., Phelps NBD., Vesterinen HM., Errecaborde KM., Alvarez J., Bender J., Wells SJ. and Perez AM.

May 8th, 2020

Early OXA-48-Producing Enterobacterales Isolates Recovered in a Spanish Hospital Reveal a Complex Introduction Dominated by Sequence Type 11 (ST11) and ST405 Klebsiella pneumoniae Clones

MSphere 5(2):e00080-20.

     Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) have become an important public health concern. In our hospital, VIM enzymes were first detected in 2005, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) enzymes in 2009, and OXA-48 enzymes in 2012. We assess the population biology of the first OXA-48-producing Enterobacterales isolates recovered in our hospital (2012 to 2013) where infections by other carbapenemases had been endemic for several years. Over a 21-month period, 71 isolates (61 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 5 Escherichia coli, 2 Klebsiella aerogenes, and 1 each of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Citrobacter amalonaticus) recovered from clinical and surveillance specimens from 57 pat… Leer más

Gijon D., Tedim AP., Valverde A., Rodriguez I., Morosini MI., Coque TM., Manrique M., Pareja E., Tobes R., Ruiz-Garbajosa P. and Canton R.

May 2nd, 2020

Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds Obtained from Breath and Feces to Detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Doñana National Park, Spain

Pathogens 9(5):346.

     The presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in wild swine, such as in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Eurasia, is cause for serious concern. Development of accurate, efficient, and noninvasive methods to detect MTBC in wild swine would be highly beneficial to surveillance and disease management efforts in affected populations. Here, we describe the first report of identification of volatile organic compounds (VOC) obtained from the breath and feces of wild boar to distinguish between MTBC-positive and MTBC-negative boar. We analyzed breath and fecal VOC collected from 15 MTBC-positive and 18 MTBC-negative wild boar in Donaña National Park in Southeast Spain. Analyses were divided into three age classes, namely, adults (>2 years), su… Leer más

Nol P., Ionescu R., Welearegay TG., Barasona JA., Vicente J., Beleno-Saenz KJ., Barrenetxea I., Torres MJ., Ionescu F. and Rhyan J.

May 1st, 2020

Wild griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) fed at supplementary feeding stations: Potential carriers of pig pathogens and pig-derived antimicrobial resistance?

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 67(3):1295-1305.

     The carriage of two important pathogens of pigs, i.e. enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Clostridioides difficile, was investigated in 104 cloacal samples from wild griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) fed on pig carcasses at supplementary feeding stations (SFS), along with their level of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). E. coli was isolated from 90 (86.5%) samples but no ETEC was detected, likely because ETEC fimbriae confer the species specificity of the pathogen. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was detected in 89.9% of E. coli isolates, being AMR levels extremely high (>70%) for tetracycline and streptomycin, and very high (>50%) for ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Resistance to other critically important antimicrob… Leer más

Sevilla E., Marin C., Delgado-Blas JF., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Vega S., Kuijper E., Bolea R. and Mainar-Jaime RC.

April 30th, 2020

A model for the assessment of bluetongue virus serotype 1 persistence in Spain

PLoS ONE 15(4):e0232534.

     Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus of ruminants that has been circulating in Europe continuously for more than two decades and has become endemic in some countries such as Spain. Spain is ideal for BTV epidemiological studies since BTV outbreaks from different sources and serotypes have occurred continuously there since 2000; BTV-1 has been reported there from 2007 to 2017. Here we develop a model for BTV-1 endemic scenario to estimate the risk of an area becoming endemic, as well as to identify the most influential factors for BTV-1 persistence. We created abundance maps at 1-km2 spatial resolution for the main vectors in Spain, Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes, by combining environmental satellite data with occ… Leer más

Aguilar-Vega C., Fernandez-Carrion E., Lucientes J. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

April 20th, 2020

Risk Assessment of African Swine Fever Virus Exposure to Sus scrofa in Japan Via Pork Products Brought in Air Passengers` Luggage

Pathogens 9(4):302.

     In recent years, African swine fever (ASF) has become prevalent in many areas, including Asia. The repeated detection of the ASF virus (ASFV) genome in pork products brought in air passenger`s luggage (PPAP) was also reported from Japanese airports. In the present study, the risk of ASFV exposure to susceptible hosts in Japan via three different pathways was assessed. Two quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were built to estimate the annual probability of ASFV exposure to domestic pigs, which could be attributed to foreign job trainees or foreign tourists. A semi-quantitative stochastic model was built to assess the risk of ASFV exposure to wild boar caused by foreign tourists. The overall mean annual probability of ASFV exposure… Leer más

Ito S., Bosch J., Jurado C., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. and Isoda N.

April 1st, 2020

Serological technique for detecting tuberculosis prevalence in sheep in Atlantic Spain

Research In Veterinary Science 129:96-98.

     Recent studies show that sheep could be considered to be a maintenance host for the causative agents of animal tuberculosis (TB). The performance of diagnostic tests is not well established, and new tests need to be developed for this species. In addition, information about TB prevalence in sheep is scarce. Our objectives were to evaluate a new P22 ELISA for detection of specific antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTC), and to assess the seropositivity in 3998 sheep from herds sampled in TB hotspot areas of northern Atlantic Spain with a low TB prevalence in cattle. Results based on 80 sheep of known infection status suggest excellent sensitivity and specificity (100% and 98%, respectively) even in a M. avium susbsp. par… Leer más

Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Gortazar C., Dominguez L., Munoz-Mendoza M., Dominguez M. and Balseiro A.

March 25th, 2020

Detection of Antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in Oral Fluid from Eurasian Wild Boar

Pathogens 9(4):242.

     The presence of Mycobacterium bovis and other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a main concern in wildlife populations such as the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Tests detecting antibodies against the MTC are valuable for tuberculosis (TB) monitoring and control and particularly useful in suids. The development of accurate, efficient, and non-invasive new tools to detect exposure to MTC would be highly beneficial for improving disease surveillance. This study aimed to determine if antibodies against MTC could be detected in oral fluid (OF) samples by a new ELISA test (IgG detection) from naturally TB-infected wild boar. For this, individual, paired serum and OF samples were collected from 148 live wild boar in two… Leer más

Barasona JA., Barroso-Arevalo S., Rivera B., Gortazar C. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

March 23rd, 2020

Liver Transudate, a Potential Alternative to Detect Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies in Pigs and Wild Boars (Sus scrofa)

Microorganisms 8(3):450.

     In recent years, cases of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection have increased in Europe in association with the consumption of contaminated food, mainly from pork products but also from wild boars. The animal’s serum is usually tested for the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and viral RNA but, in many cases such as during hunting, an adequate serum sample cannot be obtained. In the present study, liver transudate was evaluated as an alternative matrix to serum for HEV detection. A total of 125 sera and liver transudates were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at different dilutions (1:2, 1:10, 1:20), while 58 samples of serum and liver transudate were checked for the presence of HEV RNA by RT-qPCR. Anti- HEV antibodies were detected by… Leer más

Navarro A., Barcena C., Pozo P., Diez-Guerrier A., Martinez I., Polo C., Duque C., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., Goyache J. and Garcia N..

March 12nd, 2020

Towards the comparison of home range estimators obtained from contrasting tracking regimes: the wild boar as a case study

European Journal Of Wildlife Research 66:32.

     Traditional VHF radio-tracking is gradually being replaced by GPS tracking devices in spatial ecology studies, although both technologies continue to be used. Differences between tracking regimes (time and fix frequency) may lead to home range estimates that are not directly comparable. Our primary aim was to test the reliability of comparisons in home range estimates using different estimators (minimum convex polygon [MCP], fixed kernels [KDE] and dynamic Brownian Bridge Models [dBBMM]) and tracking regimes (see above) and to provide an empirical basis for linking VHS and GPS tracking data analysis, using the wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a study model. Data were obtained from 15 GPS-collared individuals from three areas in Mediterranean Spain… Leer más

Peris A., Closa F., Marco I., Acevedo P., Barasona JA. and Casas Diaz E.

March 1st, 2020

Quantitative risk assessment of African swine fever virus introduction to Japan via pork products brought in air passengers` luggage

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 67(2):894-905.

     The spread of African swine fever (ASF) has reached pandemic levels over the last decade, and outbreaks of this disease in China, Mongolia, Vietnam and Cambodia in 2018 and 2019 could accelerate its transmission to neighbouring Asian territories. Thus, the risk that the ASF virus (ASFV) will be introduced to disease-free territories increases each year. Since Japan is an island nation, the most likely way in which ASFV would be introduced is via pork products brought in air passengers` luggage (PPAP). Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the risk of ASFV introduction to Japan via PPAP. For the purposes of this analysis, we considered 214 international commercial flights travelling from 47 origin territories to 31 destination airport… Leer más

Ito S., Jurado C., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. and Isoda N.

March 1st, 2020

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from food-producing ruminants

Veterinary Microbiology 242:108593.

     A total of 96 Trueperella pyogenes isolates, an opportunistic pathogen of food-producing ruminants, obtained from cattle (n = 34), sheep (n = 35) and goats (n = 27), and identified by Real Time PCR (qPCR), were analysed to determine the susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials commonly used in livestock, using a broth microdilution. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) distribution was unimodal for half of the antimicrobials tested with the exception of apramycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, oxytetracycline, tylosin, and erythromycin all of which showed bimodal MIC distributions. Low MIC90 values for penicillin, amoxicillin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin (<1 μg/ml) were obtained, sugge… Leer más

Galan-Relaño A., Gomez-Gascon L., Barrero-Dominguez B., Luque I., Jurado-Martos F., Vela AI., Sanz-Tejero C. and Tarradas C.

March 1st, 2020

Importance of equine piroplasmosis antibody presence in Spanish horses prior to export

Ticks And Tick-Borne Diseases 11(2):101329.

     Serological analysis of equine piroplasmosis (EP), caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, is included in the export testing requirements for most of the countries worldwide, thus involving a high economic impact on equine industry of EP-endemic countries, such as Spain. A total of 3368 serum samples from healthy horses collected prior to export between 2015 and 2018 in Spain were tested for antibodies against T. equi and B. caballi by using a competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The overall seroprevalence results in Spain revealed that almost a quarter of the horses analysed (24.1%; 95% CI 22.6-25.5) could not be exported to countries free from EP. The implementation of prevention measures such as the us… Leer más

Camino E., Pozo P., Dorrego-Rodriguez A., Carvajal KA., Buendia A., Gonzalez S., de Juan L., Dominguez L. and Cruz F..

February 28th, 2020

Adenovirus-vectored African Swine Fever Virus Antigens Cocktail Is Not Protective against Virulent Arm07 Isolate in Eurasian Wild Boar

Pathogens 9(171):1-14.

     African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease of domestic and wild suids for which there is currently no vaccine or treatment available. The recent spread of ASF virus (ASFV) through Europe and Asia is causing enormous economic and animal losses. Unfortunately, the measures taken so far are insufficient and an effective vaccine against ASFV needs to be urgently developed. We hypothesized that immunization with a cocktail of thirty-five rationally selected antigens would improve the protective efficacy of subunit vaccine prototypes given that the combination of fewer immunogenic antigens (between 2 and 22) has failed to elicit protective efficacy. To this end,
immunogenicity and efficacy of thirty-five adenovirus-vectored ASFV antigens… Leer más

Cadenas-Fernández E., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Kosowska A., Rivera B., Mayoral-Alegre F., Rodriguez-Bertos A., Yao J., Bray J., Lokhandwala S., Mwangi W. and Barasona JA..

February 15th, 2020

Disease-mediated piglet mortality prevents wild boar population growth in fenced overabundant settings

European Journal Of Wildlife Research 66:26.

     Assessing Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) mortality is a key for understanding population dynamics and adjusting hunting harvest and population management. We used radio-tagging and video-trapping to quantify piglet summer mortality in a managed (i.e. fenced and year-round fed) wild boar population from southern Spain. We used two independent tools to assess wild boar mortality, i.e. radio-tracking and video footage. A total of 32 wild boar piglets were captured at selective feeders acting as cage-traps, and all the piglets were equipped with ear-tag transmitters including a mortality sensor. Additionally, 20 camera traps were set up in video mode at wild boar feeders. Videos were visualized calculating the proportion of piglets seen per ad… Leer más

Barasona JA., Risalde MA., Ortiz JA., Gonzalez-Barrio D., Che Amat A., Perez-Sancho M., Vargas-Castillo L., Xeidakis A., Jurado-Tarifa E. and Gortazar C.

February 13rd, 2020

Dynamic Network of Interactions in the Wildlife-Livestock Interface in Mediterranean Spain: An Epidemiological Point of View

Pathogens 9(2):120.

     The correct management of diseases that are transmitted between wildlife and livestock requires a reliable estimate of the pathogen transmission rate. The calculation of this parameter is a challenge for epidemiologists, since transmission can occur through multiple pathways. The social network analysis is a widely used tool in epidemiology due to its capacity to identify individuals and communities with relevant roles for pathogen transmission. In the present work, we studied the dynamic network of interactions in a complex epidemiological scenario using information from different methodologies. In 2015, nine red deer, seven fallow deer, six wild boar and nine cattle were simultaneously monitored using GPS-GSM-Proximity collars in Doñana N… Leer más

Triguero-Ocana R., Martinez-Lopez B., Vicente J., Barasona JA., Martinez-Guijosa J. and Acevedo P.

February 12nd, 2020

Antibiotic resistance patterns in human, animal, food and environmental isolates in Ghana: a review

The Pan African Medical Journal 35:37.

     Many articles have been published on resistant microorganisms isolated from humans, animals, foods and the environment in Ghana. However, there are no reviews that summarize the information on the isolates and antibiotics tested so far in the country. This literature review was completed through "PubMed" and "Google Scholar" searches. We included publications from the period 1975-2015 with a laboratory-based methodology to determine antibiotic resistance of strains isolated in Ghana. In total, 60 articles were included in the analysis with 10% of the articles carrying out nationwide research on antibiotic resistance. The regions of Ghana with the highest published articles were Greater Accra (40%), Ashanti (21.7%) and Northern Region (10%).… Leer más

Garcia-Vello P., Gonzalez-Zorn B. and Setsoafia-Saba CK.

February 12nd, 2020

Antimicrobial Usage in Companion and Food Animals: Methods, Surveys and Relationships With Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals and Humans

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 7(63):1-3.

     The best way to quantify antimicrobial use (AMU) in animals is still an elusive question, it probably does not have a unique answer. This collection of 15 articles describes different metrics, methodologies, data sources, animal scenarios, study designs, and levels of study about AMU quantification in animals. The diversity of approaches highlights a strong need for international collaboration, sharing of experiences, and more discussion about methods to improve uptake of harmonized standards (where harmonization might be suitable)… Leer más

Moreno MA., Collineau L. and Carson CA.

February 4th, 2020

Protective Effect of Oral BCG and Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis Vaccines in European Badgers (Meles meles) Experimentally Infected With M. bovis

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 7(41):1-13.

     In Europe, badgers (Meles meles) are recognized as major tuberculosis (TB) reservoir hosts with the potential to transmit infection to associated cattle herds. Recent studies in Spain have demonstrated that vaccination with a heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (HIMB) successfully protects captive wild boar and red deer against progressive disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two oral vaccines against TB in a badger model: the live-attenuated M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin BCG vaccine (Danish strain) and a HIMB vaccine. Twenty-four badgers were separated in three treatment groups: oral vaccinated with live BCG (108 CFU, n = 5), oral vaccinated with HIMB (107 CFU, n = 7), and unvaccinated controls (n = 1… Leer más

Balseiro A., Prieto JM., Alvarez V., Lesellier S., Dave D., Salguero FJ., Sevilla IA., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Garrido JM., Adriaensen H., Juste RA. and Barral M.

February 1st, 2020

A ten-year-surveillance program of zoonotic pathogens in feral pigeons in the City of Madrid (2005-2014): The importance of a systematic pest control

Research In Veterinary Science 128:293-298.

     Feral pigeons have increased in urban settings worldwide becoming a potential health risk for humans and other animals. Control and surveillance programs are essential to prevent the possible transmission of zoonotic pathogens carried by pigeons. A surveillance program was carried out in Madrid City (Spain) during 2005–2014 to determine the role of urban pigeons as carriers of zoonotic agents comparing these results with studies performed elsewhere in the last fifteen years.

A total of 1372 pigeons were randomly captured and tested for detection of Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic heterogeneity of Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates were determined. During the first phase (August 2005–July 2010), 428 animals were an… Leer más

Perez-Sancho M., Garcia-Seco T., Porrero MC., Garcia N., Gomez S., Camara JM., Dominguez L. and Alvarez J..

February 1st, 2020

Evaluation of a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in goat milk

Research In Veterinary Science 128:217-223.

     Caprine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonosis with sanitary and economic repercussions. Caprine TB control programs are based on a test and cull strategy using the intradermal tuberculin tests and slaughterhouse surveillance. However, this approach is not always feasible and may have a limited sensitivity under specific circumstances. In this study, performance of a new experimental test based on the P22 protein complex (P22 ELISA) was evaluated in two TB-infected herds using milk and serum samples and compared with cell-based diagnostic tests. Samples from a low (n = 62, herd 1) and a high (n = 52, herd 2) TB prevalence herd were selected. Moreover, bulk tank
milk samples from both herds were analysed using the P22 ELISA. At the end of th… Leer más

Roy A., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Dominguez M., Moreno I., Perez-Sancho M., Garcia N., Garcia-Seco T., Alvarez J., Romero B., Gortazar C., de Juan L., Dominguez L. and Bezos J..

February 1st, 2020

Comparison of the sensitivity of laryngeal swabs and deep tracheal catheters for detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in experimentally and naturally infected pigs early and late after infection

Veterinary Microbiology 241:108500.

     Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in live pigs is a critical component to measure the success of disease control or elimination strategies. However, in vivo diagnosis of M. hyopneumoniae is difficult and the imperfect sensitivity of diagnostic tools has been deemed as one of the main challenges. Here, the sensitivity of laryngeal swabs and deep tracheal catheters for detection of M. hyopneumoniae early and late after infection was determined using inoculation status as a gold standard in experimentally infected pigs and a Bayesian approach in naturally infected pigs. Three-hundred and twenty 8-week old seeder pigs were intra-tracheally inoculated
with M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 and immediately placed with 1920 contact … Leer más

Sponheim A., Alvarez J., Fano E., Schmaling E., Dee S., Hanson D., Wetzell T. and Pieters M.

February 1st, 2020

Prevalence and time trend analysis of antimicrobial resistance in respiratory bacterial pathogens collected from diseased pigs in USA between 2006-2016

Research In Veterinary Science 128:135-144.

     Swine respiratory disease complex (SRDC) causes massive economic losses to the swine industry and is a major animal welfare concern. Antimicrobials are mainstay in treatment and control of SRDC. However, there is a lack of data on the prevalence and trends in resistance to antimicrobials in bacterial pathogens associated with SRDC. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and changes in resistance to 13 antimicrobials in swine bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus suis, Pasteurella multocida, Actinobacillus suis and Haemophilus parasuis) in the U.S.A using data collected at University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory between 2006 and 2016. For antimicrobials for which breakpoints were available, prevalence of res… Leer más

Hayer SS., Rovira A., Olsen K., Johnson TJ., Vannucci F., Rendahl A., Perez AM. and Alvarez J..

January 28th, 2020

Occurrence of Hepatitis E Virus in Pigs and Pork Cuts and Organs at the Time of Slaughter, Spain, 2017

Frontiers In Microbiology 10:2990.

     Zoonotic hepatitis E, mainly caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt) 3, is a foodborne disease that has emerged in Europe in recent decades. The main animal reservoir for genotype 3 is domestic pigs. Pig liver and liver-derivates are considered the major risk products, and studies focused on the presence of HEV in pig muscles are scarce. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of HEV in different organs and tissues of 45 apparently healthy pigs from 9 Spanish slaughterhouses (50% National production), that could enter into the food supply chain. Anti-HEV antibodies were evaluated in serum by an ELISA test. Ten samples from each animal were analyzed for the presence of HEV RNA by a RT-qPCR. The overall seropre… Leer más

Garcia N., Hernandez M., Gutierrez-Boada M., Valero A., Navarro A., Munoz-Chimeno M., Fernandez-Manzano A., Escobar FM., Martinez I., Barcena C., Gonzalez S., Avellon A., Eiros JM., Fongaro G., Dominguez L., Goyache J. and Rodriguez-Lazaro D.

January 1st, 2020

Econometric ARIMA methodology to elucidate the evolution of trends in nosocomial antimicrobial resistance rates in the European Union

International Journal Of Antimicrobial Agents 55(1):105800.

Infectious pathogens harboring cephalosporin or fluoroquinolones resistance constitute a serious hazard to human health.
The aim of this study is to set up a methodology based on econometric analysis and largest European Union (EU) resistance database (EARS-Net) to model EU nosocomial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to detect tendency changes, steps or peaks. The contribution of legislation based on third generation cephalosporin (3GC) and fluoroquinolones (FQ) class referrals on EU resistance rate patterns is evaluated.
We studied 3GC and FQ resistance in nosocomial E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa in at least 25 out of 30 EU countries (> 94% population coverage… Leer más

Ortega-Huedo R., Cuesta M., Hoefer A. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

January 1st, 2020

Identifying emerging trends in antimicrobial resistance using Salmonella surveillance data in poultry in Spain

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 67(1):250-262.

     Despite of controls and preventive measures implemented along the food chain, infection with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) remains one of the major causes of foodborne disease worldwide. Poultry is considered one of the major sources of NTS. This has led to the implementation of monitoring and control programs in many countries (including Spain) to ensure that in poultry flocks infection is kept to a minimum and to allow the identification and monitoring of circulating NTS strains and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes. Here, we investigated the information from the monitoring program for AMR in Salmonella from poultry in Spain in 2011-2017 to assess the diversity in phenotypic resistance and to evaluate the program`s ability … Leer más

Alvarez J., Lopez-Perez G., Muellner P., De Frutos C., Ahistrom C., Serrano T., Moreno MA., Duran M., Saez-Llorente JL., Dominguez L. and Ugarte-Ruiz M..

Science Publication
ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 250 SUAT 61 SUAT 15
2 ICM 237 ZTA 53 MYC 11
3 MYC 227 MYC 48 SAP 11
4 SUAT 219 ICM 40 ZTA 6
5 NED 75 SAP 31 ICM 4
  VISAVET 1124 315 55

Impact Factor Average
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 3.907 ZTA 5.359 ZTA 6.183
2 SAP 3.818 SUAT 4.227 SAP 6.06
3 SUAT 2.987 SAP 4.095 NED 4.3
4 MYC 2.8 NED 3.858 SUAT 4.287
5 DICM 2.776 ICM 3.798 MYC 3.118
VISAVET 3.284 4.885 6.794

ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo.
1 Transbound Emerg Dis 93 Front Vet Sci 35
2 Vet Microbiol 88 Transbound Emerg Dis 32
3 Prev Vet Med 77 Animals 15
4 Front Vet Sci 61 Res Vet Sci 14
5 PLoS ONE 56 Sci Rep 14
  All journals 354   All journals 39