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SCI scientific publications 2013

December 27th, 2013

Non-pet dogs as sentinels and potential synanthropic reservoirs of tick-borne and zoonotic bacteria

Veterinary Microbiology 167(3-4):700-3.

     Blood samples were collected from 100 shepherd dogs, 12 hunting dogs and 14 stray dogs (apparently healthy) in southern Hungary to screen for the presence of emerging tick-borne pathogens. Based on real-time PCR results, 14 dogs (11%) had single or dual haemoplasma infection, and a same number of samples were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In one sample Coxiella burnetii was molecularly identified, and 20.3% of dogs seroconverted to the Q fever agent. Rickettsaemia (sensu stricto) was also detected in one animal. This is the first molecular evidence of autochthonous infection of dogs with the above pathogens in Hungary. The relatively high prevalence of haemoplasma and anaplasma infection among non-pet dogs is suggestive of a prolo… Leer más

Hornok S., Denes B., Meli ML., Tanczos B., Fekete L., Gyuranecz M., de la Fuente J., Fernandez de Mera IG., Farkas R. and Hofmann-Lehmann R.

December 27th, 2013

Food-borne zoonotic pathogens and antimicrobial resistance of indicator bacteria in urban wild boars in Barcelona, Spain

Veterinary Microbiology 167(3-4):686-9.

     Wildlife is increasingly abundant in urban environments, but little is known about the zoonotic pathogens carried by these populations. Urban wild boars are of particular concern because this species is well-known as a pathogen reservoir, and thus, we studied selected zoonotic pathogens in urban wild boars in Barcelona, Spain (n=41). Salmonella enterica was found in 5.00% (95% CI 0.61-16.91) and Campylobacter coli in 4.88% (95% CI 0.6-16.53) of the animals. E. coli O157:H7 and C. jejuni were not found. Other thermophilic Campylobacter were moderately prevalent (19.51%, 95% CI 8.82-34.87). Additionally, we screened for antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria: resistance was most frequent in Enterococcus faecium (95% of the isolates we… Leer más

Navarro-Gonzalez N., Casas-Diaz E., Porrero MC., Mateos A., Dominguez L., Lavin S. and Serrano E.

December 27th, 2013

Septicaemic pasteurellosis in free-range pigs associated with an unusual biovar 13 of Pasteurella multocida

Veterinary Microbiology 167(3-4):690-4.

     Biochemical profiles, PFGE typing and MLST analysis were used to investigate an outbreak of septicaemic pasteurellosis in a free-range pig farm in Spain. Signs of coughing, dyspnoea and a visible inflammation of the ventral area of the neck (jowl), which acquired a cyanotic and necrotic appearance, were the characteristic findings in affected animals, associated with a high morbidity (70%) and case mortality (95%). Diffuse, haemorrhagic and fibrinous pleuroneumonia and acute, focally extensive and haemorrhagic myositis and panniculitis were observed in the histopathological analysis from three analyzed animals. Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida, capsular type B, biovar 13 was isolated in pure culture from lung, submandibular tissue (jo… Leer más

Cardoso-Toset F., Gomez-Laguna J., Callejo M., Vela AI., Carrasco L., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Maldonado A. and Luque I.

December 1st, 2013

Investigation of risk factors associated with infections caused by small ruminant lentiviruses

Bulletin Of The Veterinary Institute In Pulawy 57(4):473-478.

     An epidemiological study was conducted to identify risk factors related to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection in the central region of Spain. Between October 1998 and October 2000, a total of 194 sheep from 10 flocks and 163 goats from three flocks were tested for SRLV antibodies, resulting in 65.5% and 8.0% of seroprevalence, respectively. The relationship between differences in prevalence of SRLV, geographical location of the flock, and possible factors related to the flock that could enhance transmission were studied. Results of multivariable analysis showed an association between SRLV infection and geographical location of the flock and the rearing system. In addition, the differences in the productivity between infected and non… Leer más

Barquero N., Gomez-Lucia E., Arjona A., Toural C., Las Heras A., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Ruiz-Santa Quiteria JA. and Domenech A.

December 1st, 2013

Characterization of flavobacteria possibly associated with fish and fish farm environment. Description of three novel Flavobacterium species: Flavobacterium collinsii sp. nov., Flavobacterium branchiarum sp. nov., and Flavobacterium branchiicola sp. nov.

Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 416-417:346-353.

     Members of the genus Flavobacterium are widely distributed microorganisms that can be recovered from a wide variety of environments. There has been an increase in the number of species isolated from fish or fish farm environments, some of them possibly associated with disease. Fourteen Flavobacterium-like isolates recovered from gills, surface of eggs and liver of rainbow trout were characterized by a polyphasic study that included a deep phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic analysis. Comparative 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that isolates represented three separate phylogenetic groups (A–C) within the genus Flavobacterium. Further genotypic and phenotypic data demonstrated that they represent three novel species of the … Leer más

Zamora L., Vela AI., Sanchez-Porro C., Palacios MA., Dominguez L., Moore ERB., Ventosa A. and Fernandez-Garayzabal JF..

December 1st, 2013

Ante-mortem diagnosis of caprine tuberculosis in persistently infected herds: Influence of lesion type on the sensitivity of diagnostic tests

Research In Veterinary Science 95(3):1107-13.

     Caprine tuberculosis is a major health problem for goats, and an important zoonosis. Eradication programmes using the comparative skin test are being developed to aid in decreasing the prevalence of infection. However, persistent tuberculosis infections are found in herds subjected to eradication programmes. In the present study a commercial IFN-γ release assay and an experimental ELISA based on MPB70, were evaluated as potential ancillary tests to detect infection. The relationship between the three techniques (skin test, IFN-γ release and ELISA) and histopathological lesions was analyzed in 162 goats from herds with persistent tuberculosis infection. The presence of related pathogens (paratuberculosis and pseudotuberculosis) was… Leer más

Buendia AJ., Navarro JA., Salinas J., McNair J., de Juan L., Ortega N., Camara P., Torreblanca P. and Sanchez J.

December 1st, 2013

Unmasking subtle differences in the infectivity of microevolved Mycobacterium tuberculosis variants coinfecting the same patient

International Journal Of Medical Microbiology 303(8):693-6.

     Clonal variants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can emerge as a result of microevolution phenomena. The functional significance of these subtle genetic rearrangements is normally disregarded. We show that clonal variants from two patients had different infective behaviours in some in vitro cellular infection models but not in others. Microevolution may have a subtle impact on infectivity, but specific experimental conditions are needed to unmask it… Leer más

Navarro Y., Perez-Lago L., Sislema F., Herranz M., de Juan L., Bouza E. and Garcia de Viedma D.

November 1st, 2013

Sequencing of modern Lepus VDJ genes shows that the usage of VHn genes has been retained in both Oryctolagus and Lepus that diverged 12 million years ago

Immunogenetics 65(11):777-84.

     Among mammals, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has a unique mechanism of generating the primary antibody repertoire. Despite having over 200 VH genes, the VH1 gene, the most D-proximal VH gene, is used in 80-90 % of VDJ rearrangements, while the remaining 10-20 % is encoded by the VHn genes that map at least 100 Kb upstream of VH1. The maintenance of the VHn genes usage in low frequency in VDJ rearrangements has been suggested to represent a relic of an ancestral immunologic response to pathogens. To address this question, we sequenced VDJ genes for another leporid, genus Lepus, which separated from European rabbit 12 million years ago. Approximately 25 VDJ gene sequences were obtained for each one of three Lepus europaeus indiv… Leer más

Pinheiro A., Fernandez de Mera IG., Alves PC., Gortazar C., de la Fuente J. and Esteves PJ.

November 1st, 2013

Multiclonal dispersal of KPC genes following the emergence of non-ST258 KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clones in Madrid, Spain

The Journal Of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 68(11):2487-92.

To analyse the ongoing epidemiology of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae after a non-ST258 KPC-3-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak in a university hospital in Madrid, Spain.
Enterobacterial isolates (one per patient based on bacterial identification and typing patterns) with carbapenem MICs higher than the EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values, a positive modified Hodge test and carbapenem/boronic acid combination disc test results were studied (16 March 2010 to 31 January 2012) and compared with KPC-producing isolates previously described in our institution (September 2009 to February 2010). The bacterial population structure (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing), carbapenemase genes and KPC … Leer más

Ruiz-Garbajosa P., Curiao T., Tato M., Gijon D., Pintado V., Valverde A., Baquero F., Morosini MI., Coque TM. and Canton R.

November 1st, 2013

Global transcriptome analysis of Lactococcus garvieae strains in response to temperature

PLoS ONE 8(11):e79692.

     Lactococcus garvieae is an important fish and an opportunistic human pathogen. The genomic sequences of several L. garvieae strains have been recently published, opening the possibility of global studies on the biology of this pathogen. In this study, a whole genome DNA microarray of two strains of L. garvieae was designed and validated. This DNA microarray was used to investigate the effects of growth temperature (18°C and 37°C) on the transcriptome of two clinical strains of L. garvieae that were isolated from fish (Lg8831) and from a human case of septicemia (Lg21881). The transcriptome profiles evidenced a strain-specific response to temperature, which was more evident at 18°C. Among the most significant findings, Lg8831 was found to up… Leer más

Aguado-Urda M., Gibello A., Blanco MM., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Lopez-Alonso V. and Lopez-Campos GH.

November 1st, 2013

Splitting of a prevalent Mycobacterium bovis spoligotype by Variable Number Tandem Repeat Typing reveals high heterogeneity in an evolving clonal group

Journal Of Clinical Microbiology 51(11):3658-65.

     Mycobacterium bovis populations in countries with persistent bovine tuberculosis usually show a prevalent spoligotype with a wide geographical distribution. This study applied Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit (MIRU) - Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing to a random panel of 115 M. bovis isolates representative of the most frequent spoligotype in the Iberian Peninsula, SB0121. VNTR typing targeted nine loci: ETR-A (alias VNTR2165), ETR-B (VNTR2461), ETR-D (MIRU4, VNTR580), ETR-E (MIRU31, VNTR3192), MIRU26 (VNTR2996), QUB11a (VNTR2163a), QUB11b (VNTR2163b), QUB26 (VNTR4052) and QUB3232 (VNTR3232). We found a high diversity among the studied isolates (discriminatory index D=0.9856) which were split into 65 different MIRU-VNTR… Leer más

Rodriguez-Campos S., Navarro Y., Romero B., de Juan L., Bezos J., Mateos A., Golby P., Smith NH., Hewinson RG., Dominguez L., Garcia de Viedma D. and Aranaz A.

November 1st, 2013

The effect of different isolation protocols on detection and molecular characterization of Campylobacter from poultry

Letters In Applied Microbiology 57(5):427-435.

     We determined whether different methods to isolate Campylobacter (including the ISO standard 10272:2006-1) affected the genotypes detectable from poultry, at three points during slaughter: caecal content, neck skin and meat. Carcasses from 28 independent flocks were thus sampled (Subset A). In addition, ten neck skin samples from four flocks, ten caecal samples from ten different flocks and ten unrelated meat samples obtained from local supermarkets were collected (Subset B). Campylobacter was isolated using eight different protocols: with and without enrichment using Bolton broth, Preston broth or Campyfood broth (CFB), followed by culture on either modified Charcoal Cefoperazone Desoxycholate Agar (mCCDA) or Campyfood agar (CFA). All obta… Leer más

Ugarte-Ruiz M., Wassenaar TM., Gomez S., Porrero MC., Navarro-Gonzalez N. and Dominguez L..

November 1st, 2013

Cattle drive Salmonella infection in the wildlife-livestock interface

Zoonoses And Public Health 60(7):510-8.

     The genus Salmonella is found throughout the world and is a potential pathogen for most vertebrates. It is also the most common cause of food-borne illness in humans, and wildlife is an emerging source of food-borne disease in humans due to the consumption of game meat. Wild boar is one of the most abundant European game species and these wild swine are known to be carriers of zoonotic and food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella. Isolation of the pathogen, serotyping and molecular biology are necessary for elucidating epidemiological connections in multi-host populations. Although disease management at population level can be addressed using a number of different strategies, such management is difficult in free-living wildlife populations d… Leer más

Mentaberre G., Porrero MC., Navarro-Gonzalez N., Serrano E., Dominguez L. and Lavin S.

October 22nd, 2013

Evolution of Specific Antibodies and Proviral DNA in Milk of Small Ruminants Infected by Small Ruminant Lentivirus

Viruses-Basel 5(10):2614-23.

     The diagnosis of Small Ruminant Lentivirus (SRLV) is based on clinical signs, pathological lesions and laboratory testing. No standard reference test for the diagnosis of maedi visna has been validated up to the present, and it is puzzling that tests which detect antibodies against the virus and tests which detect the proviral genome may render opposite results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence in milk throughout a lactation period of specific antibodies by ELISA and of SRLV proviral DNA by a PCR of the highly conserved pol region. A six-month study was conducted with the milk of 28 ewes and 31 goats intensively reared. The percentage of animals with antibodies against SRLV increased throughout the study period. Seropreval… Leer más

Barquero N., Gomez-Lucia E., Arjona A., Toural C., Heras AI., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF. and Domenech A.

October 1st, 2013

Antimicrobial Resistance in Indicator Escherichia coli Isolates from Free-Ranging Livestock and Sympatric Wild Ungulates in a Natural Environment (Northeastern Spain)

Applied And Environmental Microbiology 79(19):6184-6.

     Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected.… Leer más

Navarro-Gonzalez N., Porrero MC., Mentaberre G., Serrano E., Mateos A., Dominguez L. and Lavin S.

October 1st, 2013

First identification of Salmonella Urbana and Salmonella Ouakam in humans in Africa

Journal Of Infection In Developing Countries 7(10):691-695.

     INTRODUCTION: Salmonella infections are increasing worldwide, but there are few reports on Salmonella surveillance in African countries and other developing countries. This has made it difficult to estimate the actual burden of salmonellosis, especially in Africa. This study was conducted in a neglected Northern Region of Ghana where there are no previous data on Salmonella serotypes. METHODOLOGY: Standard microbiological tests were used for isolation, identification, and serotyping. Micro-dilution was used for the antimicrobial susceptibility tests. RESULTS: Four serotypes of Salmonella were identified: S. Urbana, S. Ouakam, S. Senftenberg, and S. Stanleyville. All the serotypes were susceptible to the 20 antibiotics used in the susceptibi… Leer más

Saba C., Escudero JA., Herrera-Leon S., Porrero MC., Suarez M., Dominguez L., Demuyakor B. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

October 1st, 2013

The use of infrared thermography as a non-invasive method for fever detection in sheep infected with bluetongue virus

The Veterinary Journal 198(1):182-6.

     Fever, which is closely linked to viraemia, is considered to be both the main and the earliest clinical sign in sheep infected with bluetongue virus (BTV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of infrared thermography (IRT) for early detection of fever in sheep experimentally infected with bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) and serotype 8 (BTV-8). This would reduce animal stress during experimental assays and assist in the development of a screening method for the identification of fever in animals suspected of being infected with BTV. Rectal and infrared eye temperatures were collected before and after BTV inoculation. The two temperature measures were positively correlated (r=0.504, P<0.05). The highest correlation bet… Leer más

Perez de Diego AC., Sanchez-Cordon PJ., Pedrera M., Martinez-Lopez B., Gomez-Villamandos JC. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

October 1st, 2013

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in different free-living wild animal species in Spain

The Veterinary Journal 198(1):127-30.

     Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a life-threatening pathogen in humans and its presence in animals is a public health concern. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of MRSA in free-living wild animals. Samples from red deer (n=273), Iberian ibex (n=212), Eurasian Griffon vulture (n=40) and wild boar (n=817) taken from different areas in Spain between June 2008 and November 2011 were analyzed. Characterization of the isolates was performed by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A low prevalence of MRSA was found with 13 isolates obtained from 12 animals (0.89%; 95% CI: 0.46-1.56). All MRSA sequence types belonged to ST398 (t011 and t1451) and ST1 (t127). … Leer más

Porrero MC., Mentaberre G., Sanchez S., Fernandez-Llario P., Gomez S., Navarro-Gonzalez N., Serrano E., Casas-Diaz E., Marco I., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Mateos A., Vidal D., Lavin S. and Dominguez L..

October 1st, 2013

Co-Occurrence of ACSSuT and Cephalosporin Resistance Phenotypes Is Mediated by int1-associated elements in nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica from human infections in Spain

Microbial Drug Resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 19(5):384-91.

     A screening of antimicrobial resistance and its genetic determinants has been performed on 300 Salmonella enterica isolates collected during 2004-2008 from human infections in Spain. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were the major serotypes, which were found with similar frequencies covering 80% of the bacterial collection. Salmonella Typhimurium isolates frequently shared low susceptibility to antimicrobials of the penta-resistance phenotype (ACSSuT) and/or cephalosporin resistance. The ACSSuT profile was found closely linked to int1-associated gene cassettes, with major elements carrying DNA fragments of 1.0 Kb (aadA2 gene) plus 1.2 Kb (blaPSE-1 gene) or 2.0 Kb (aadA1 and blaOXA-1 genes). Among these, AC… Leer más

Campos MJ., Palomo G., Hormeno L., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Porrero MC., Herrera-Leon S., Vadillo S., Piriz S. and Quesada A.

October 1st, 2013

Development and evaluation of an IS711-based loop mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP) for detection of Brucella spp. on clinical samples

Research In Veterinary Science 95(2):489-94.

     DNA-based methods have emerged as an additional tool for Brucella infection-confirmation at a herd level. However, their implementation may require the use of specialized equipment. In this context the recently developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique may constitute an additional and cost-effective tool for rapid and specific DNA detection, especially in low income areas. In the present study the usefulness of a newly developed LAMP assay aiming at the multicopy-IS711 sequence was assessed on a variety of clinical samples (n=81 from abortions and ewes; cattle, n=3; swine, n=4) that were analyzed in parallel using real-time PCR and bacteriology. Although overall sensitivities obtained with the three methods were comp… Leer más

Perez-Sancho M., Garcia-Seco T., Arrogante L., Garcia N., Martinez I., Diez-Guerrier A., Perales A., Goyache J., Dominguez L. and Alvarez J..

October 1st, 2013

Social network analysis of equidae movements and its application to risk-based surveillance and to control of spread of potential equidae diseases

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 60(5):448-59.

     Movements of animals and animal products are one of the most important ways of disease introduction and spread between regions and countries. Maybe one of the most complex animal species in terms of diversity of uses, nature and extent of movements are equidae, for which animal movement records are usually not available. The study presented here is the first characterization of a complete and reliable network of equidae movements in Castile and Leon, which is one of the most important equidae production regions of Spain. Social network analysis and space-time cluster analysis were used to describe the contact patterns of the equidae network and to identify the most important premises, areas and time periods for potential disease introductio… Leer más

Sanchez-Matamoros A., Martinez-Lopez B., Sanchez-Vizcaino F. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

September 27th, 2013

Comparative study of clinical courses, gross lesions, acute phase response and coagulation disorders in sheep inoculated with bluetongue virus serotype 1 and 8

Veterinary Microbiology 166(1-2):184-94.

     Bluetongue virus serotypes 1 (BTV-1) and 8 (BTV-8) have been described as the most prevalent in Europe during recent outbreaks displaying intense virulence, sheep being among the most severely affected livestock species. However, BTV pathogenesis is still unclear. This study sought to elucidate differences in the pathogenetic mechanisms of BTV-1 and -8 in sheep. For this purpose, a time-course study was carried out, with sequential sacrifices in order to relate pathological lesions to changes in a range of virological and serological parameters. A greater virulence of BTV-1 was probed. BTV-1 infected sheep showed a longer clinical course, with a significant increase of clinical signs and more severe gross lesions than BTV-8 infected sheep. … Leer más

Sanchez-Cordon PJ., Pleguezuelos FJ., Perez de Diego AC., Gomez-Villamandos JC., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Ceron JJ., Tecles F., Garfia B. and Pedrera M.

September 8th, 2013

Wild boar tuberculosis in Iberian Atlantic Spain: a different picture from Mediterranean habitats

BMC Veterinary Research 9(1):176.

     BACKGROUND: Infections with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are shared between livestock, wildlife and sporadically human beings. Wildlife reservoirs exist worldwide and can interfere with bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication efforts. The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a MTC maintenance host in Mediterranean Iberia (Spain and Portugal). However, few systematic studies in wild boar have been carried out in Atlantic regions. We describe the prevalence, distribution, pathology and epidemiology of MTC and other mycobacteria from wild boar in Atlantic Spain. A total of 2,067 wild boar were sampled between 2008 and 2012. RESULTS: The results provide insight into the current statu… Leer más

Munoz-Mendoza M., Marreros N., Boadella M., Gortazar C., Menendez S., de Juan L., Bezos J., Romero B., Copano MF., Amado J., Saez-Llorente JL., Mourelo J. and Balseiro A.

September 3rd, 2013

Two cases of pseudohermaphroditism in loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta

Diseases Of Aquatic Organisms 105(3):183-91.

     Two juvenile (curved carapace lengths: 28 and 30 cm) loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta with precocious male external characteristics were admitted to the ARCA del Mar rescue area at the Oceanogràfic Aquarium in Valencia, Spain, in 2009 and 2010. Routine internal laparoscopic examination and subsequent histopathology confirmed the presence of apparently healthy internal female gonads in both animals. Extensive tissue biopsy and hormone induction assays were consistent with female sex. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of pseudohermaphroditism in loggerhead sea turtles based on sexual external characteristics and internal laparoscopic examination. Our findings suggest that the practice of using external phenotypical … Leer más

Crespo JL., Garcia-Parraga D., Gimenez I., Rubio-Guerri C., Melero M., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Marco A., Cuesta JA. and Munoz MJ.

September 1st, 2013

High prevalence of Hepatozoon-infection among shepherd dogs in a region considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus

Veterinary Parasitology 196(1-2):189-93.

     Blood samples and ticks were collected from 100 shepherd dogs, 12 hunting dogs and 14 stray dogs in southern Hungary, in order to screen them for the presence of Hepatozoon spp. by PCR. Out of 126 blood samples, 33 were positive (26%). Significantly more shepherd dogs (31%) were infected, than hunting (8%) and stray dogs (7%). Three genotypes of Hepatozoon canis were identified by sequencing, differing from each other in up to six nucleotides in the amplified portion of their 18S rRNA gene. In Dermacentor marginatus larvae/nymphs and Dermacentor reticulatus nymphs, H. canis was present only if they had been collected from PCR-positive dogs, and the genotypes were identical in the ticks and their hosts. However, two Haemaphysalis concinna ny… Leer más

Hornok S., Tanczos B., Fernandez de Mera IG., de la Fuente J., Hofmann-Lehmann R. and Farkas R.

September 1st, 2013

Disseminated Avian Mycobacteriosis in a Free-Living Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea)

Avian Diseases 57:703-706.

     Wild birds share with humans the capacity for moving fast over large distances. During migratory movements, birds carry pathogens that can be transmitted between species. One of these concerning pathogens is Mycobacterium spp. A necropsy was performed in a grey heron (Ardea cinerea) that had been medically treated for a polyarthritic process. Grossly, firm white-yellowish nodules of various size, resembling granulomas, were observed in right carpal joint, both patellar joints, neck musculature, palate, pharynx, larynx, nasal sinuses, pericardial sac, air sacs, proventriculus and intestinal serosa, pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands, and oviduct. Microscopically, these lesions were composed of multinucleated giant cells, large macrophages, an… Leer más

Quesada-Canales O., Diaz-Delgado J., Paz Y., Dominguez L., Bezos J., Calabuig P., Suarez-Bonnet A., Fernandez A. and Andrada M.

September 1st, 2013

Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 11 from companion animals bearing ArmA methyltransferase, DHA-1 B-lactamase and QnrB4

Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy 57(9):4532-4.

     Seven Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from dogs and cats in Spain were found to be highly resistant to aminoglycosides, and ArmA methyltransferase was responsible for this phenotype. All isolates were typed by MLST as ST11, a human epidemic clone reported worldwide associated among others with OXA-48 and NDM carbapenemases. In the seven strains armA was borne by an IncR plasmid, pB1025, of 50 kb. The isolates were found to co-produce DHA-1 and SHV-11 β-lactamases, as well as QnrB4 resistance determinant. This first report of the ArmA methyltransferase in pets illustrates their importance as a reservoir for human multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae… Leer más

Hidalgo L., Gutierrez B., Ovejero CM., Carrilero L., Matrat S., Saba C., Santos-Lopez A., Thomas-Lopez D., Hoefer A., Santurde G., Martin-Espada C. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

September 1st, 2013

Evaluation of the performance of cellular and serological diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) herd naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 111(3-4):304-13.

     Tuberculosis (TB) in llamas and alpacas has gained importance in recent years since they are imported into the European Union mainly for serving as pets and for production of natural fibre. The intradermal tuberculin test has been widely used for diagnosis of TB in these species showing lack of sensitivity (Se) although little information has been previously reported evaluating the effect on its performance of different PPD inoculation sites and time of readings. Moreover, different cost-effective serological assays have been developed in the recent years for TB diagnosis in camelids obtaining a variety of results and, for this reason, new assays still being developed. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the performance … Leer más

Bezos J., Casal C., Alvarez J., Diez-Guerrier A., Rodriguez-Bertos A., Romero B., Rueda P., Lopez L., Dominguez L. and de Juan L..

September 1st, 2013

Spatial relationships between Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis in Northern Spain

The Veterinary Journal 197(3):739-45.

     Recent studies suggest that badgers may be a potential reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis infection for cattle in Northern Spain. The objective of this study was to investigate potential epidemiological links between cattle and badgers. Culture and molecular typing data were available for cattle culled during the national tuberculosis (TB) eradication campaigns between 2008 and 2012, as well as from 171 necropsied badgers and 60 live animals trapped and examined over the same time period. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains were isolated from pooled tissues of 14 (8.2%) necropsied badgers, of which 11 were identified as M. bovis: six different spoligotypes of M. bovis were subsequently identified. In two geographical locations where th… Leer más

Balseiro A., Gonzalez-Quiros P., Rodriguez O., Copano MF., Merediz I., de Juan L., Chambers MA., Delahay RJ., Marreros N., Royo LJ., Bezos J., Prieto JM. and Gortazar C.

August 31st, 2013

First report of colistin-resistant KPC-2 producing ST258-Klebsiella pneumoniae in Spain

Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiología Clínica 31(7):489-91.

     The rapid spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) in the last years represents a serious public health threat. KPCs have a great potential for spread due to their location on mobile genetic elements that are horizontally transferred and associated with widespread clones.1 Many KPC producing K. pneumoniae isolates are associated to a single sequence type (ST)258, a clonal lineage that has been causing epidemics of great proportions in various regions of USA, Israel, Greece and recently in other European countries.2, 3 Organisms carrying carbapenemases usually harbours resistance determinants to other antimicrobials and consequently infections due to these pathogens are difficult to treat which results in high associated morbidi… Leer más

Valentin-Martin A., Valverde A., Bosque-Vall M. and Canton R.

August 30th, 2013

Genetic analysis of Streptococcus suis isolates from wild rabbits

Veterinary Microbiology 165(3-4):483-6.

     This work aims to investigate the presence of Streptococcus suis in wild rabbits. A total of 65 S. suis isolates were recovered from 33.3% of the wild rabbits examined. Most isolates (86.2%) belong to genotype cps9. These isolates were further characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence genotyping. Overall, S. suis exhibited a low genetic diversity. Only 5 genetic profiles were obtained by PFGE and most isolates (71.4%) were included in two pulsotypes that were also widely distributed among the wild rabbit population. MLST analysis assigned all cps9 isolates into three new singlestones (ST216, ST217 and ST284), which were not genetically related to the European ST87 and Spanish S… Leer más

Sanchez V., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Briones V., Iriso A., Dominguez L., Gottschalk M. and Vela AI..

August 1st, 2013

Indigenous and acquired modifications in the aminoglycoside binding sites of Pseudomonas aeruginosa rRNAs

RNA Biology 10(8):1324-32.

     Aminoglycoside antibiotics remain the drugs of choice for treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, particularly for respiratory complications in cystic-fibrosis patients. Previous studies on other bacteria have shown that aminoglycosides have their primary target within the decoding region of 16S rRNA helix 44 with a secondary target in 23S rRNA helix 69. Here, we have mapped P. aeruginosa rRNAs using MALDI mass spectrometry and reverse transcriptase primer extension to identify nucleotide modifications that could influence aminoglycoside interactions. Helices 44 and 45 contain indigenous (housekeeping) modifications at m ( 4) Cm1402, m ( 3) U1498, m ( 2) G1516, m ( 6) 2A1518, and m ( 6) 2A1519; helix 69 is modified at m ( 3) Ψ1… Leer más

Gutierrez B., Douthwaite S. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

August 1st, 2013

Development of a suspension microarray for the genotyping of African Swine Fever Virus targeting the SNPs in the c-terminal end of the p72 gene region of the genome

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 60(4):378-383.

     African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes one of the most dreaded transboundary animal diseases (TADs) in Suidae. African swine fever (ASF) often causes high rates of morbidity and mortality, which can reach 100% in domestic swine. To date, serological diagnosis has the drawback of not being able to differentiate variants of this virus. Previous studies have identified the 22 genotypes based on sequence variation in the C-terminal region of the p72 gene, which has become the standard for categorizing ASFVs. This article describes a genotyping assay developed using a segment of PCR-amplified genomic DNA of approximately 450 bp, which encompasses the C-terminal end of the p72 gene. Complementary paired DNA probes of 15 or 17 bp in l… Leer más

Leblanc N., Cortey M., Fernandez-Pinero J., Gallardo C., Masembe C., Okurut AR., Heath L., van Heerden J., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Stahl K. and Belak S.

July 29th, 2013

Tuberculosis epidemiology in islands: insularity, hosts and trade

PLoS ONE 8(7):e71074.

     Because of their relative simplicity and the barriers to gene flow, islands are ideal systems to study the distribution of biodiversity. However, the knowledge that can be extracted from this peculiar ecosystem regarding epidemiology of economically relevant diseases has not been widely addressed. We used information available in the scientific literature for 10 old world islands or archipelagos and original data on Sicily to gain new insights into the epidemiology of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). We explored three nonexclusive working hypotheses on the processes modulating bovine tuberculosis (bTB) herd prevalence in cattle and MTC strain diversity: insularity, hosts and trade. Results suggest that bTB herd prevalence was p… Leer más

Acevedo P., Romero B., Vicente J., Caracappa S., Galluzzo P., Marineo S., Vicari D., Torina A., Casal C., de la Fuente J. and Gortazar C.

July 26th, 2013

African swine fever (ASF): Five years around Europe

Veterinary Microbiology 165(1-2):45-50.

     Since African swine fever (ASF) was re-introduced into Eastern Europe in April 2007, the disease has spread through five countries, drastically changing the European ASF situation. This re-introduction has significant implications for the affected countries, and it puts the European Union (EU) at serious risk of ASF introduction. Numerous factors are complicating the control of ASF in the Russian Federation and neighboring areas, particularly the absence of a coordinated control program, the abundance of backyard pig units with low or no biosecurity and the traditional use of swill feeding. All these risk factors are driven in turn by socio-economic, political and cultural factors. Moreover, the lack of clear information regarding the curre… Leer más

Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Mur L. and Martinez-Lopez B.

July 26th, 2013

Identification of suitable areas for the occurrence of Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Spain using a multiple criteria decision framework

Veterinary Microbiology 165(1-2):71-8.

     Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease that may produce a considerable impact on the economy in affected countries. In the last decades, the geographic distribution of RVF virus has increased including most of the countries in Africa, Arabia Saudi and Yemen. This situation has raised the concerns regarding its potential introduction in the European Union (EU) countries where the high number of susceptible species and competent vectors may contribute to the spread of the disease and challenge its rapid control. Thus, the identification of the areas and time periods with highest suitability for RVF outbreak occurrence would be useful for improving the early detection and rapid response of the disease into free countries. Th… Leer más

Sanchez-Vizcaino F., Martinez-Lopez B. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

July 26th, 2013

One World, One Health, One Virology

Veterinary Microbiology 165(1-2):1.

     Under the title of One World, One Health, One Virology, the 9th International Congress of Veterinary Virology of the European Society for Veterinary Virology (ESVV) was held at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Madrid from 4th to 7th September 2012. The variety of topics covered and discussed included: Emerging viruses; Epidemiology, risk assessment and modeling; Enzootic viral infections; Vaccines, antivirals and viral immunology; Viral diagnosis; Clinical virology; Evolution and genomics; Host-virus interactions. In addition, two special seminars, in which eight guest speakers participated, focused on Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases of Ruminants and on Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). Special attention was paid … Leer más

Sanchez-Vizcaino JM.

July 26th, 2013

Evaluation of the risk of classical swine fever (CSF) spread from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs by using the spatial stochastic disease spread model Be-FAST: The example of Bulgaria

Veterinary Microbiology 165(1-2):79-85.

     The study presented here is one of the very first aimed at exploring the potential spread of classical swine fever (CSF) from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs. Specifically, we used a spatial stochastic spread model, called Be-FAST, to evaluate the potential spread of CSF virus (CSFV) in Bulgaria, which holds a large number of backyards (96% of the total number of pig farms) and is one of the very few countries for which backyard pigs and farm counts are available. The model revealed that, despite backyard pigs being very likely to become infected, infections from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs were rare. In general, the magnitude and duration of the CSF simulated epidemics were small, with a median [95% PI] number of infected far… Leer más

Martinez-Lopez B., Ivorra B., Ramos AM., Fernandez-Carrion E., Alexandrov T. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

July 26th, 2013

Control of bluetongue in Europe

Veterinary Microbiology 165(1-2):33-7.

     Since 1998, bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11 and 16 have spread throughout Europe. In 2006, BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) emerged unexpectedly in northern Europe throughout a region including Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. In the following year, it spread rapidly throughout the rest of Europe. In 2008, two more BTV serotypes were detected in northern Europe: BTV-6 in the Netherlands and Germany and BTV-11 in Belgium. The European incursion of BTV has caused considerable economic losses, comprising not only direct losses from mortality and reduced production but also indirect losses because of ensuing bans on trade of ruminants between BTV-infected and non-infected areas. Given the significance of the… Leer más

Zientara S. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

July 26th, 2013

Simultaneous diagnosis of Cetacean morbillivirus infection in dolphins stranded in the Spanish Mediterranean sea in 2011 using a novel Universal Probe Library (UPL) RT-PCR assay

Veterinary Microbiology 165(1-2):109-14.

     A highly sensitive and specific real-time (rt) RT-PCR assay has been developed for rapid, simultaneous detection of three strains of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV). In this assay, two PCR primers and a hydrolysis probe from a commercially available Universal Probe Library (UPL) are used to amplify a highly conserved region within the fusion protein gene. RT-PCR is carried out on the same sample using two primer sets in parallel: one set detects the more virulent strains, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV), and the other set detects the least virulent and least common strain, pilot whale morbillivirus (PWMV). Sensitivity analysis using dilute samples containing purified DMV, PMV and PWMV showed that viral RNA detecti… Leer más

Rubio-Guerri C., Melero M., Rivera B., Belliere EN., Crespo JL., Garcia-Parraga D., Esperon F. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

July 26th, 2013

Potential use of oral fluid samples for serological diagnosis of African swine fever

Veterinary Microbiology 165(1-2):135-9.

     African swine fever (ASF) is a complex, highly lethal, notifiable disease of swine. ASF is wide-spread in sub-Saharan Africa and East European countries and there is presently a great risk of spread to neighboring countries. Since there is no vaccine for ASF virus (ASFV), control is based on rapid and early detection of the disease via surveillance. This approach requires collecting blood samples from large number of animals. Laborious and expensive of itself, this process also presents an additional risk because ASFV is present at high concentrations in the blood. The objective of this study was to initiate studies into the potential use of oral fluid as an alternative to serum for ASF diagnosis, for latter studying its possible use in sur… Leer más

Mur L., Gallardo C., Soler A., Zimmermman J., Pelayo V., Nieto R., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. and Arias M.

July 23rd, 2013

Identification of Hotspots in the European Union for the Introduction of Four Zoonotic Arboviroses by Live Animal Trade

PLoS ONE 8(7):e70000.

     Live animal trade is considered a major mode of introduction of viruses from enzootic foci into disease-free areas. Due to societal and behavioural changes, some wild animal species may nowadays be considered as pet species. The species diversity of animals involved in international trade is thus increasing. This could benefit pathogens that have a broad host range such as arboviruses. The objective of this study was to analyze the risk posed by live animal imports for the introduction, in the European Union (EU), of four arboviruses that affect human and horses: Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Importation data for a five-years period (2005-2009, extracted from the EU T… Leer más

Durand B., Lecollinet S., Beck C., Martinez-Lopez B., Balenghien T. and Chevalier V.

July 23rd, 2013

Detection and assessment of electrocution in endangered raptors by infrared thermography

BMC Veterinary Research 9:149.

     BACKGROUND: Most European birds of prey find themselves in a poor state of conservation, with electrocution as one of the most frequent causes of unnatural death. Since early detection of electrocution is difficult, treatment is usually implemented late, which reduces its effectiveness. By considering that electrocution reduces tissue temperature, it may be detectable by thermography, which would allow a more rapid identification. Three individuals from three endangered raptor species [Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)] were studied thermographically from the time they were admitted to a rehabilitation centre to the time their clinical cases were resolved. CASES PRESENT… Leer más

Melero M., Gonzalez F., Nicolas O., Lopez I., Jimenez MA., Jato-Sanchez S. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

July 1st, 2013

Optimizing the sampling effort to evaluate body condition in ungulates: A case study on red deer

Ecological Indicators 30:65-71.

     Body condition is a useful measure of the nutritional status and performance in ungulates. The most widely used indicators of body condition are based on fat reserves, mainly those surrounding the kidneys. To estimate the body condition in large herbivores, researchers often collect and pool the data from both kidneys and their perirenal fat in order to compensate for potential differences between the body condition indicators obtained from the left and right kidneys. Since these differences do not seem to be properly established in wildlife, we checked for the potential differences between the body condition indicators, derived from both kidneys, in wild ungulates. In the present study, we used red deer Cervus elaphus, both under experimen… Leer más

Santos JPV., Fernandez de Mera IG., Acevedo P., Boadella M., Fierro Y., Vicente J. and Gortazar C.

July 1st, 2013

Assessment of Virulence Factors Characteristic of Human Escherichia coli Pathotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance in O157:H7 and Non-O157:H7 Isolates from Livestock in Spain

Applied And Environmental Microbiology 79(13):4170-2.

     Distribution of virulence factors (VFs) typical of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles were assessed in 780 isolates from healthy pigs, broilers and cattle from Spain. VF distribution was broader than expected although at low prevalence for most genes, with AMR being mainly linked to host species… Leer más

Cabal A., Gomez S., Porrero MC., Barcena C., Lopez G., Canton R., Gortazar C., Dominguez L. and Alvarez J..

July 1st, 2013

Garvicin A, a novel class IId bacteriocin from Lactococcus garvieae that inhibits septum formation in L. garvieae strains

Applied And Environmental Microbiology 79(14):4336-46.

     Lactococcus garvieae 21881, isolated from a human clinical case, produces a novel class IId bacteriocin, garvicin A (GarA), which is specifically active against other L. garvieae strains, including fish and bovine pathogenic isolates. Purification from active supernatants, sequence analyses, and plasmid-curing experiments identified pGL5, one of the five plasmids found in L. garvieae 21881 (Aguado-Urda M, Gibello A, Blanco MM, López-Campos GH, Cutuli MT, Fernández-Garayzábal JF. 2012. PLoS ONE 7 (6):e40119. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040119), as the coding plasmid for the structural gene of GarA (lgnA), its putative immunity protein (lgnI), and the ABC-transporter and its accessory protein (lgnC and lgnD). Interestingly, pGL5-cured strains w… Leer más

Maldonado-Barragan A., Cardenas N., Martinez-Fernandez B., Ruiz-Barba JL., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Rodriguez JM. and Gibello A.

July 1st, 2013

Association of the novel aminoglycoside resistance determinant RmtF with NDM carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in India and the UK

The Journal Of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 68(7):1543-50.

     OBJECTIVES: 16S rRNA methyltransferases are an emerging mechanism conferring high-level resistance to clinically relevant aminoglycosides and have been associated with important mechanisms such as NDM-1. We sought genes encoding these enzymes in isolates highly resistant (MIC >200 mg/L) to gentamicin and amikacin from an Indian hospital and we additionally screened for the novel RmtF enzyme in 132 UK isolates containing NDM. METHODS: All highly aminoglycoside-resistant isolates were screened for armA and rmtA-E by PCR, with cloning experiments performed for isolates negative for these genes. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry was used to determine the methylation target of the novel RmtF methyltransferase.… Leer más

Hidalgo L., Hopkins KL., Gutierrez B., Ovejero CM., Shukla S., Douthwaite S., Prasad KN., Woodford N. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

July 1st, 2013

SatR is a repressor of fluoroquinolone efflux pump SatAB

Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy 57(7):3430-3.

     Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic agent responsible for high-mortality outbreaks among the human population in China. In this species, the ABC transporter SatAB mediates fluoroquinolone resistance when overexpressed. Here we describe and characterize satR, an ORF encoding a MarR-superfamily regulator that acts as a repressor of satAB. satR is cotranscribed with satAB and its interruption entails the overexpression of the pump, leading to a clinically-relevant increase in resistance to fluoroquinolones… Leer más

Escudero JA., San Millan A., Montero N., Gutierrez B., Ovejero CM., Carrilero L. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

June 27th, 2013

Sex-biased differences in the effects of host individual, host population and environmental traits driving tick parasitism in red deer

Frontiers In Cellular And Infection Microbiology 3:23.

     The interactions between host individual, host population, and environmental factors modulate parasite abundance in a given host population. Since adult exophilic ticks are highly aggregated in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and this ungulate exhibits significant sexual size dimorphism, life history traits and segregation, we hypothesized that tick parasitism on males and hinds would be differentially influenced by each of these factors. To test the hypothesis, ticks from 306 red deer-182 males and 124 females-were collected during 7 years in a red deer population in south-central Spain. By using generalized linear models, with a negative binomial error distribution and a logarithmic link function, we modeled tick abundance on deer with 20 poten… Leer más

Ruiz-Fons F., Acevedo P., Sobrino R., Vicente J., Fierro Y. and Fernandez de Mera IG.

June 25th, 2013

Flavobacterium plurextorum sp. nov. isolated from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

PLoS ONE 8(6):e67741.

     Five strains (1126-1H-08T, 51B-09, 986-08, 1084B-08 and 424-08) were isolated from diseased rainbow trout. Cells were Gram-negative rods, 0.7 µm wide and 3 µm long, non-endospore-forming, catalase and oxidase positive. Colonies were circular, yellow-pigmented, smooth and entire on TGE agar after 72 hours incubation at 25°C. They grew in a temperature range between 15°C to 30°C, but they did not grow at 37°Cor 42°C. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates belonged to the genus Flavobacterium. Strain 1126-1H-08T exhibited the highest levels of similarity with Flavobacterium oncorhynchi CECT 7678T and Flavobacterium pectinovorum DSM 6368T (98.5% and 97.9% sequence similarity, respectively). DNA–DNA hybridization values were 87 t… Leer más

Zamora L., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Sanchez-Porro C., Palacios MA., Moore ERB., Dominguez L., Ventosa A. and Vela AI..

June 22nd, 2013

Evidence of goats acting as domestic reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis

The Veterinary Record 172(25):663.

     Measures, such as the increase in the frequency of controls, the use of the gamma-interferon assay as ancillary test, the improvement of slaughterhouse surveillance, or the implementation of premovement testing have helped to progressively reduce the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Spain in the last decade (Anonymous 2012a). However, the objective of eradication is far from being achieved, and this failure has been mainly attributed to the role of wild ungulate species (mainly wild boar and red deer) as reservoirs of bTB (Vicente and others 2006, Naranjo and others 2008). In Spain, with the second largest goat population in the European Union – about 2.9 million heads in 2010 (Anonymous 2012b) – the presence of tuberculosis in go… Leer más

Napp S., Allepuz A., Mercader I., Nofrarias M., Lopez-Soria S., Domingo M., Romero B., Bezos J. and Perez de Val B.

June 6th, 2013

Enterococcus faecalis prophage dynamics and contributions to pathogenic traits

PLoS Genetics 9(6):e1003539.

     Polylysogeny is frequently considered to be the result of an adaptive evolutionary process in which prophages confer fitness and/or virulence factors, thus making them important for evolution of both bacterial populations and infectious diseases. The Enterococcus faecalis V583 isolate belongs to the high-risk clonal complex 2 that is particularly well adapted to the hospital environment. Its genome carries 7 prophage-like elements (V583-pp1 to -pp7), one of which is ubiquitous in the species. In this study, we investigated the activity of the V583 prophages and their contribution to E. faecalis biological traits. We systematically analyzed the ability of each prophage to excise from the bacterial chromosome, to replicate and to package its … Leer más

Matos RC., Lapaque N., Rigottier-Gois L., Debarbieux L., Meylheuc T., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Repoila F., Lopes F. and Serror P.

June 1st, 2013

Comparison of two biochemical methods for identifying Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from sheep and goats

The Veterinary Journal 196(3):552-4.

     The biochemical pattern of Cowan and Steel (BPCS) was compared with a commercial biochemical strip for the identification of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from small ruminants. On 16S rRNA gene sequencing, 40/78 coryneform isolates from the lymph nodes of sheep and goats with lesions resembling caseous lymphadenitis were identified as C. pseudotuberculosis. The sensitivities of the BPCS and the commercial biochemical strip relative to 16S rRNA sequencing were 80% and 85%, and their specificities were 92.1% and 94.7%, respectively; the level of agreement between the BPCS and the commercial biochemical strip was high (κ=0.82). Likelihood ratios for positive and negative results were 10.0 and 0.22 for the BPCS, and 16.0 and … Leer más

Huerta B., Gomez-Gascon L., Vela AI., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Casamayor A., Tarradas C. and Maldonado A.

June 1st, 2013

Comparison of two PCR and one ELISA techniques for the detection of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) in milk of sheep and goats

Research In Veterinary Science 94(3):817-9.

     The aim of the present study was to compare the efficiency of two PCR techniques for the diagnosis of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs). Detection of the proviral genome by PCR, though sensitive, is difficult due to the heterogeneity of the SRLV genomes. One of the PCR techniques amplifies a fragment in the pol gene (pol-PCR) and the other PCR targets the LTR region of the proviral genome (LTR-PCR). Milk from 194 sheep and 163 goats from farms in the Central Spain was analyzed by both techniques and compared to results obtained by ELISA. When compared to the serologic assay, the agreement of both PCR techniques was very low (0.024 and 0.020 in sheep, and 0.124 and 0.114 in goats). In view of these results, it may be concluded that the eff… Leer más

Barquero N., Domenech A., Arjona A., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Ruiz-Santa Quiteria JA. and Gomez-Lucia E.

June 1st, 2013

Meningitis caused by an unusual genotype (ST3) of Streptococcus suis

Infection 41(3):701-3.

     We describe a case of meningitis due to Streptococcus suis with the unusual ST3 genotype. The bacterial pathogen was isolated from blood samples. S. suis genotype ST3 was initially isolated from carrier pigs, but it has not been previously associated with invasive human
infections. The patient developed serious endogenous bilateral endophthalmitis which resulted in severe visual deficiency… Leer más

Vela AI., Aspiroz C., Fortuno B., Tirado G., Sierra J., Martinez R. and Fernandez-Garayzabal JF..

June 1st, 2013

Potential role of proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenetic mechanisms of vascular lesions in goats naturally infected with Bluetongue virus Serotype 1

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 60(3):252-62.

     In vitro studies have demonstrated that bluetongue virus (BTV)-induced vasoactive mediators could contribute to the endothelial cells dysfunction and increased vascular permeability responsible of lesions characteristic of bluetongue (BT) like oedema, haemorrhages and ischaemic necrosis in different tissues. However, few in vivo studies have been carried out to clarify the causes of these lesions. The aim of this study was to elucidate in vivo the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the appearance of vascular lesions in different organs during BT. For this purpose, tissue samples from goats naturally infected with bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) were taken for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies to determine the potential … Leer más

Sanchez-Cordon PJ., Pedrera M., Risalde MA., Molina V., Rodriguez B., Nunez A., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. and Gomez-Villamandos JC.

May 30th, 2013

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in wild boar and Iberian pigs in south-central Spain

European Journal Of Wildlife Research 59(6):859-867.

     Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a swine infectious disease causing major economic problems on the intensive pig industry. This virus has been reported worldwide in domestic pigs and there is evidence of PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa). Nonetheless, the epidemiological role of wild boar and extensively kept domestic pigs remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of PRRS in wild boar and Iberian pigs in the dehesa ecosystem of the Castile-La Mancha region of Spain, which boasts one of the most important free-roaming porcine livestock and hunting industries in the country. relationship between domestic pig density and PRRS occurrence in wild boar in Europe. … Leer más

Rodriguez-Prieto V., Kukielka D., Martinez-Lopez B., de las Heras AI., Barasona JA., Gortazar C., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. and Vicente J.

May 23rd, 2013

Unusual striped dolphin mass mortality episode related to cetacean morbillivirus in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea

BMC Veterinary Research 9(1):106.

     BACKGROUND: In the last 20 years, Cetacean Morbillivirus (CeMV) has been responsible for many die-offs in marine mammals worldwide, as clearly exemplified by the two dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) epizootics of 1990--1992 and 2006--2008, which affected Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Between March and April 2011, the number of strandings on the Valencian Community coast (E Spain) increased.CASE PRESENTATION: Necropsy and sample collection were performed in all stranded animals, with good state of conservation. Subsequently, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Universal Probe Library (UPL) RT-PCR assays were performed to identify Morbillivirus. G… Leer más

Rubio-Guerri C., Melero M., Esperon F., Belliere EN., Arbelo M., Crespo JL., Sierra E., Garcia-Parraga D. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

May 3rd, 2013

Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game animals intended for consumption: Relationship with management practices and livestock influence

Veterinary Microbiology 163(3-4):274-81.

     Although wild ruminants have been identified as reservoirs of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), little information is available concerning the role of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game species. We evaluated the presence of these pathogens in faeces (N=574) and carcasses (N=585) sampled from red deer (N=295), wild boar (N=333) and other ungulates (fallow deer, mouflon) (N=9). Animal sampling was done in situ from 33 hunting estates during two hunting seasons. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. strains associated with human campylobacteriosis were infrequently detected indicating that both pathogens had a limited zoonotic risk in our study area. The overall STEC prevalence in animals was 21% (134/637), bein… Leer más

Diaz S., Sanchez S., Herrera-Leon S., Porrero MC., Blanco J., Dahbi G., Blanco JE., Mora A., Mateo R., Hanning I. and Vidal D.

May 1st, 2013

Seminibacterium arietis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the semen of rams

Systematic And Applied Microbiology 36(3):166-70.

     Two gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, bacillus-shaped bacterial strains were isolated from the semen of two rams. 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that both isolates represented a distinct subline within the family Pasteurellaceae with <95% sequence similarity to any recognized member of this family. Sequencing of rpoB and infB genes confirmed this finding with the semen isolates representing a new sub-line within the family Pasteurellaceae. The main cell fatty acids of strain DICM-00342(T) were C14:0, C16:0, C18:1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c/iso-C15:0 2OH). Ubiquinone Q-8 was the major quinone and 1,3-diaminopropane was the predominat polyamine. Major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidyl… Leer más

Vela AI., Bueso JP., Dominguez L., Busse HJ. and Fernandez-Garayzabal JF..

April 15th, 2013

Introduction of African Swine fever into the European Union through illegal importation of pork and pork products

PLoS ONE 8(4):e61104.

     Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal import… Leer más

Costard S., Jones BA., Martinez-Lopez B., Mur L., de la Torre A., Martinez-Aviles M., Sanchez-Vizcaino F., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Pfeiffer DU. and Wieland B.

April 12nd, 2013

Change of integrons over time in Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy pigs and chickens

Veterinary Microbiology 163(1-2):124-32.

     The aims of this study were (a) to perform a time-related quantitative analysis of relative integron frequencies in intestinal Escherichia coli isolates from food animals (pigs and chickens) and (b) to analyse putative relationships between integrons, antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic groups. The E. coli collection of the Spanish Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network was used to extract 393 intestinal isolates from healthy pigs and chickens belonging to the oldest (1998/99) and the latest (2006) available surveillance programs, and their quantitative antimicrobial resistance data. PCR and sequencing were used for detection and characterisation of integrons. Integron overall relative frequencies ranged between 80% … Leer más

Marchant-Mella MA., Vinue L., Torres C. and Moreno MA.

April 1st, 2013

Wildlife and paratuberculosis: a review

Research In Veterinary Science 94(2):191-7.

     Paratuberculosis (PTB) is an infectious granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) causing significant economic losses in livestock. However, PTB in free
living and captive wildlife has not been as extensively studied as in livestock. We reviewed the existing literature references on MAP to i) determine the potential impact of MAP infection in wildlife species; ii) analyze whether wildlife reservoirs are relevant regarding MAP control in domestic ruminants; iii) assess the importance of MAP as the cause of potential interferences with
tuberculosis diagnosis in wildlife. The mean MAP prevalence reported in wildlife was 2.41% (95% confidence interval 1.76-3.06). Although MAP should be considered… Leer más

Carta T., Alvarez J., Perez de la Lastra JM. and Gortazar C.

April 1st, 2013

Epidemiology of African swine fever virus

Virus Research 173(1):191-7.

     African swine fever virus used to occur primarily in Africa. There had been occasional incursions into Europe or America which apart from the endemic situation on the island of Sardinia always had been successfully controlled. But following an introduction of the virus in 2007, it now has expanded its geographical distribution into Caucasus and Eastern Europe where it has not been controlled, to date. African swine fever affects domestic and wild pig species, and can involve tick vectors. The ability of the virus to survive within a particular ecosystem is defined by the ecology of its wild host populations and the characteristics of livestock production systems, which influence host and vector species densities and interrelationships. Afri… Leer más

Costard S., Mur L., Lubroth J., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. and Pfeiffer DU.

March 1st, 2013

Molecular evidence of Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia massiliae in ixodid ticks of carnivores from South Hungary

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 61(1):42-50.

     To monitor the emergence of thermophilic, Mediterranean ixodid tick species and tick-borne pathogens in southern Hungary, 348 ticks were collected from shepherd dogs, red foxes and golden jackals during the summer of 2011. Golden jackals shared tick species with both the dog and the red fox in the region. Dermacentor nymphs were collected exclusively from dogs, and the sequence identification of these ticks indicated that dogs are preferred hosts of both D. reticulatus and D. marginatus nymphs, unlike previously reported. Subadults of three ixodid species were selected for reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) analysis to screen their vector potential for 40 pathogens/groups. Results were negative for Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria spp. I… Leer más

Hornok S., Fuente J., Horvath G., Fernandez de Mera IG., Wijnveld M., Tanczos B., Farkas R. and Jongejan F.

February 26th, 2013

Dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant clones of Salmonella enterica among domestic animals, wild animals, and humans

Foodborne Pathogens And Disease 10(2):171-6.

     Abstract Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. This work focuses on the identification of Salmonella enterica clonal strains which, presenting a wide distribution potential, express resistance determinants that compromise effectiveness of the antimicrobial therapy. The screening was performed on 506 Salmonella enterica isolates from animals and humans, which were characterized by serovar and phage typing, genome macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and detection of phenotypic and genotypic traits for antimicrobial resistance. A Salmonella Enteritidis strain with strong quinolone resistance is spread on three host environments carrying one of the four variants found for … Leer más

Palomo G., Campos MJ., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Porrero MC., Alonso JM., Borge C., Vadillo S., Dominguez L., Quesada A. and Piriz S.

February 1st, 2013

Synanthropic Birds Associated with High Prevalence of Tick-Borne Rickettsiae and with the First Detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hungary

Vector Borne And Zoonotic Diseases 13(2):77-83.

     The aim of this study was to analyze synanthropic birds as risk factors for introducing ticks and tick-borne pathogens into human settlements, with an emphasis on rickettsiae. Altogether 184 subadult ticks were found on 5846 birds. Tick infestation was most prevalent during the spring. In this sample group the majority of ticks were molecularly identified as Ixodes ricinus, and three individuals collected from the European robin as Hyalomma marginatum marginatum. The latter is the first molecularly confirmed occurrence of this species in Hungary. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in H. marginatum, also for the first time in Hungary, and in ticks from an urbanized bird species north of the Mediterranean countries. The overall prevalence … Leer más

Hornok S., Csorgo T., de la Fuente J., Gyuranecz M., Privigyei C., Meli ML., Kreizinger Z., Gonczi E., Fernandez de Mera IG. and Hofmann-Lehmann R.

February 1st, 2013

Metagenomic detection of viral pathogens in spanish honeybees: co-infection by aphid lethal paralysis, Israel acute paralysis and lake sinai viruses

PLoS ONE 8(2):e57459.

     The situation in Europe concerning honeybees has in recent years become increasingly aggravated with steady decline in populations and/or catastrophic winter losses. This has largely been attributed to the occurrence of a variety of known and "unknown", emerging novel diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that colonies often can harbour more than one pathogen, making identification of etiological agents with classical methods difficult. By employing an unbiased metagenomic approach, which allows the detection of both unexpected and previously unknown infectious agents, the detection of three viruses, Aphid Lethal Paralysis Virus (ALPV), Israel Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), and Lake Sinai Virus (LSV), in honeybees from Spain is report… Leer más

Granberg F., Vicente-Rubiano M., Rubio-Guerri C., Karlsson OE., Kukielka D., Belak S. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

February 1st, 2013

Dynamics and diversity of Escherichia coli in animals and system management of the manure in a commercial farrow-to-finish pig farm

Applied And Environmental Microbiology 79(3):853-9.

     The objective of this study was to determine the dynamics and diversity of Escherichia coli population in animal and environmental lines of a commercial farrow-to-finish pig farm in Spain along a full production cycle (July 2008 to July 2009), with special attention to its antimicrobial resistance and integron presence.In the animal line a total of 256 isolates were collected from pregnant sows (10 samples; 20 isolates), one-week-old piglets (20; 40), unweaned piglets (20; 38), growers (20; 40) and finishers` floor-pen (6; 118 isolates); from the underfloor pits and farm slurry tank environmental lines, a total of 100 and 119 isolates, respectively were collected.Our results showed that E. coli populations in the pig fecal microbiota and in… Leer más

Marchant-Mella MA. and Moreno MA.

January 1st, 2013

Short communication. Presence, quantification and phylogeny of Israeli acute paralysis virus of honeybees in Andalusia (Spain)

Spanish Journal Of Agricultural Research 11(3):708-713.

     This study aimed to assess the possible relationship between the presence of Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) of honeybees and disease symptoms development at the colony level, to describe the IAPV load in field colonies and to illustrate phylogenetic relationships between IAPV isolates in Andalusia (Spain). Presence and load of IAPV was studied in 96 colonies from all provinces in Andalusia. Epidemiological surveys were performed in all the colonies to assess their sanitary status. IAPV was found in 13.5% of the sampled colonies, and no association was observed between the presence of IAPV and disease symptoms at the colony level. An average IAPV load was established in 4.9•105 genome equivalent copies per bee. Phylogenetic analysis re… Leer más

Vicente-Rubiano M., Kukielka D., de las Heras AI. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

January 1st, 2013

Development and evaluation of a SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay for evaluation of cytokine gene expression in horse

Cytokine 61(1):50-3.

     Cytokine secretion is one of the main mechanisms by which the immune system is regulated in response to pathogens. Therefore, the measurement of cytokine expression is fundamental to characterizing the immune response to infections. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is widely used to measure cytokine mRNA levels, but assay conditions should be properly evaluated before analyzing important equine infections through relative quantification of gene expression. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a set of RT-qPCR assays for a panel of the most common cytokines in horses involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. Eight cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-1… Leer más

Sanchez-Matamoros A., Kukielka D., de las Heras AI. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

January 1st, 2013

Identification of the pattern of appearance and development of thermal windows in the skin of juvenile Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in a controlled environment

Marine Mammal Science 29(1):167-176.

     Marine mammals maintain thermal equilibrium not only by relying on a layer of insulation (e.g., fur or blubber) and a body shape with a relatively low surface-to-volume ratio, but also by adjusting blood flow to the skin and appendages (Bryden and Molyneux 1978, Molyneux and Bryden 1978, Hokkanen 1990, Dehnhardt et al. 1998, Boyd 2000). These areas of adjustable blood flow, known as thermal windows, act as heat-dissipaters or heat-conservers depending on the needs of the animal (Tattersall et al. 2009). For example, cetaceans have circulatory plexuses to enable counter-current heat transfer in the dorsal fin, the pectoral flippers and the flukes (Scholander and Schevill 1955). Among otariids, fur seals appear to use their flippers for remov… Leer más

Rodriguez-Prieto V., Rubio-Garcia A., Melero M., Garcia-Parraga D. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

Science Publication
ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 250 SUAT 61 SUAT 15
2 ICM 237 ZTA 53 MYC 11
3 MYC 227 MYC 48 SAP 11
4 SUAT 219 ICM 40 ZTA 6
5 NED 75 SAP 31 ICM 4
  VISAVET 1124 315 55

Impact Factor Average
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 3.907 ZTA 5.359 ZTA 6.183
2 SAP 3.818 SUAT 4.227 SAP 6.06
3 SUAT 2.987 SAP 4.095 NED 4.3
4 MYC 2.8 NED 3.858 SUAT 4.287
5 DICM 2.776 ICM 3.798 MYC 3.118
VISAVET 3.284 4.885 6.794

ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo.
1 Transbound Emerg Dis 93 Front Vet Sci 35
2 Vet Microbiol 88 Transbound Emerg Dis 32
3 Prev Vet Med 77 Animals 15
4 Front Vet Sci 61 Res Vet Sci 14
5 PLoS ONE 56 Sci Rep 14
  All journals 354   All journals 39