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SCI scientific publications 2011

December 15th, 2011

Large-scale screening of a targeted Enterococcus faecalis mutant library identifies envelope fitness factors

PLoS ONE 6(12):e29023.

     Spread of antibiotic resistance among bacteria responsible for nosocomial and community-acquired infections urges for novel therapeutic or prophylactic targets and for innovative pathogen-specific antibacterial compounds. Major challenges are posed by opportunistic pathogens belonging to the low GC% Gram-positive bacteria. Among those, Enterococcus faecalis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections associated with life-threatening issues and increased hospital costs. To better understand the molecular properties of enterococci that may be required for virulence, and that may explain the emergence of these bacteria in nosocomial infections, we performed the first large-scale functional analysis of E. faecalis V583, the first vancomy… Leer más

Rigottier-Gois L., Alberti A., Houel A., Taly JF., Palcy P., Manson J., Pinto D., Matos RC., Carrilero L., Montero N., Tariq M., Karsens H., Repp C., Kropec A., Budin-Verneuil A., Benachour A., Sauvageot N., Bizzini A., Gilmore MS., Bessieres P., Kok J., Huebner J., Lopes F., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Hartke A. and Serror P.

December 6th, 2011

First case of erysipelas in a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) stranded in the Mediterranean Sea

Diseases Of Aquatic Organisms 97:167-170.

     An adult female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) stranded alive and subsequently died several minutes later on the Mediterranean coast of Spain on 14 July 2010. Clinical examination revealed foam through the blowhole and rales upon lung auscultation. On venipuncture, the blood was abnormally dense and dark. Hematological and biochemical abnormalities included dehydration, leukocytosis (48600 leukocytes µl−1) characterized by neutrophilia (48200 neutrophils µl−1), and elevated bilirubin (4.38 mg dl−1), alanine aminotransferase (382.3 U l−1), aspartate aminotransferase (1449.3 U l−1), lactate dehydrogenase (1631.3 U l−1), and creatine kinase (404.7 U l−1). The most relevant findings of the gros… Leer más

Melero M., Rubio-Guerri C., Crespo JL., Arbelo M., Vela AI., Garcia-Parraga D., Sierra E., Dominguez L. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

December 1st, 2011

Review on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

The Journal Of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 66(12):2705-14.

     Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important opportunistic pathogen of companion animals, especially dogs. Since 2006 there has been a significant emergence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) mainly due to clonal spread. This article reviews research on MRSP with a focus on occurrence, methods used for identification, risk factors for colonization and infection, zoonotic potential and control options. Potential areas for future research are also discussed… Leer más

van Duijkeren E., Catry B., Greko C., Moreno MA., Pomba MC., Pyorala S., Ruzauskas M., Sanders P., Threlfall EJ., Torren-Edo J. and Torneke K.

December 1st, 2011

Spatio-Temporal Trends of Iberian Wild Boar Contact with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Detected by ELISA

Ecohealth 8(4):478-484.

     The continuing expansion of Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations raises concerns regarding disease transmission. In south-central Spain, overabundant wild boar are reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis, and related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), the causative agents of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using bovine-purified protein derivative was applied to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of wild boar contact with MTBC in the Iberian Peninsula and to model and identify the associated risk factors. Wild boar apparent seroprevalence was 22%. Seropositives were detected in 71% of 81 sites, including 23 sites where wildlife was thought to be bTB free. The resul… Leer más

Boadella M., Acevedo P., Vicente J., Mentaberre G., Balseiro A., Arnal M., Martinez D., Garcia-Bocanegra I., Casal C., Alvarez J., Oleaga A., Lavin S., Munoz M., Saez-Llorente JL., de la Fuente J. and Gortazar C.

December 1st, 2011

Humans as source of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in cattle, Spain

Emerging Infectious Diseases 17(12):2393-2395.

     Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main causative agent of tuberculosis in humans. However, little attention has been paid to its transmission from humans to animals. We report M. tuberculosis infections in 3 cattle farms in Spain. The epidemiologic investigation traced humans as the source of infection, with 1 of the strains showing multidrug resistance… Leer más

Romero B., Rodriguez-Campos S., Bezos J., Diaz R., Copano MF., Merediz I., Minguez O., Marques S., Palacios JJ., Garcia de Viedma D., Saez-Llorente JL., Mateos A., Aranaz A., Dominguez L. and de Juan L..

December 1st, 2011

A genetic comparison of pig, cow and trout isolates of Lactococcus garvieae by PFGE analysis

Letters In Applied Microbiology 53(6):614-9.

     Aims:Genetic comparison of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from mammals and fish. Methods and Results:  One hundred and ninety seven L. garvieae isolates obtained from trout (n = 153), cow (n = 7) and pigs (n = 37) were genetically characterized by determining their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles after macrorestriction with Bsp120I. Overall, L. garvieae isolates from pigs, cow and trout exhibited distinct PFGE patterns, with a low genetic relationship between them. Isolates from trout generated 2 pulsotypes [Genetic diversity (GD) 0.01], showing that the fish isolates were more genetically homogenous than the others. The L. garvieae isolates from cows displayed 5 (GD 0.71) different pulsotypes while the swine isolates … Leer más

Tejedor JL., Vela AI., Gibello A., Casamayor A., Dominguez L. and Fernandez-Garayzabal JF..

December 1st, 2011

Fluoroquinolone efflux in Streptococcus suis is mediated by SatAB and not by SmrA

Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy 55(12):5850-60.

     Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen. However, with the lack of an effective vaccine, antibiotics remain the main tool to fight against infections caused by this pathogen. We have previously observed a reserpine-sensitive fluoroquinolone-efflux phenotype in this species. Here, SatAB and SmrA, two pumps belonging to the ATP Binding Cassette and the Major Facilitator Superfamily respectively, have been analyzed in the fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolate BB1013. Genes encoding these pumps were overexpressed either constitutively or in the presence of ciprofloxacin in this strain. These genes could not be cloned onto plasmids in E. coli despite strong expression repression. Finally, site directed insertion of smrA and satA… Leer más

Escudero JA., San Millan A., Gutierrez B., Hidalgo L., La Ragione RM., Abuoun M., Galimand M., Ferrandiz MJ., Dominguez L., de la Campa AG. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

December 1st, 2011

Genetic comparison among dolphin morbillivirus in the 1990-1992 and 2006-2008 Mediterranean outbreaks

Infection Genetics And Evolution 11(8):1913-20.

     In 1990, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) killed thousands of striped dolphins in the Mediterranean. Subsequently, the prevalence of the infection declined in this species. In 2006-2008, the virus killed not only numerous striped dolphins but also long-finned pilot whales. All partial sequences of the phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein genes obtained thus far from different host species during the 2006-2008 outbreak show 100% identity, suggesting that a single virus was involved, and these sequences are nearly identical to the 1990 Spanish strain. Here our first objective was to determine the sequence identity between the morbillivirus from the 2006-2008 outbreak and the 1990 Spanish strain by sequencing more extensive genomic regions of strains f… Leer más

Belliere EN., Esperon F. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

December 1st, 2011

Plasmid containing CpG motifs enhances the efficacy of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome live attenuated vaccine

Veterinary Immunology And Immunopathology 144(3-4):405-9.

     Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is now among the most important swine diseases that affect the Chinese swine industry. Both killed and live attenuated vaccines are currently used against the disease, but neither of them could provide full protection after vaccination. In the present study, the adjuvanticity of a plasmid containing CpG motifs (pUC18-CpG) was introduced to enhance the efficacy of a commercial PRRS live attenuated vaccine. After vaccination, PRRSV-specific antibodies, PRRSV-specific cytokines, and clinical parameters were studied and compared between different vaccinated groups. During a following challenge study, co-administration of pUC18-CpG with the vaccine could confer higher protection rate. Our resu… Leer más

Guo X., Zhang Q., Hou S., Zhai G., Zhu H. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

December 1st, 2011

Pseudomonas composti sp. nov., isolated from compost samples

International Journal Of Systematic And Evolutionary Microbiology 61:2962-2966.

     Two unusual gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped organisms (C2(T) and C5) isolated from compost samples were characterized by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies demonstrated that both isolates were members of the genus Pseudomonas and located in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa group. Pseudomonas cuatrocienegasensis and Pseudomonas borbori were the most closely related species with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.9% and 97.8%, respectively. However, phylogenetic analyses based on rpoD sequences revealed that both isolates can be discriminated from Pseudomonas species that exhibited >97% similarity in 16S rRNA sequence and species belonging to the Pseudomonas aeru… Leer más

Gibello A., Vela AI., Martin M., Mengs G., Alonso PZ., Garbi C. and Fernandez-Garayzabal JF..

November 14th, 2011

An inter-laboratory validation of a Real Time PCR assay to measure host excretion of bacterial pathogens, particularly of Mycobacterium bovis

PLoS ONE 6(11):e27369.

     Advances in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife hosts may benefit the development of sustainable approaches to the management of bovine tuberculosis in cattle. In the present study, three laboratories from two different countries participated in a validation trial to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of a real time PCR assay in the detection and quantification of M. bovis from environmental samples. The sample panels consisted of negative badger faeces spiked with a dilution series of M. bovis BCG Pasteur and of field samples of faeces from badgers of unknown infection status taken from badger latrines in areas with high and low incidence of bovine TB (bTB) in cattle. Samples were tested with a previously o… Leer más

Travis ER., Gaze WH., Pontiroli A., Sweeney FP., Porter D., Mason S., Keeling MJ., Jones RM., Sawyer J., Aranaz A., Castellanos E., Cork J., Delahay RJ., Wilson GJ., Hewinson RG., Courtenay O. and H Wellington EM.

November 1st, 2011

Drying eggs to inhibit bacteria: Incubation during laying in a cavity nesting passerine

Behavioural Processes 88(3):142-8.

     Early incubation has been suggested as a defensive adaptation against potentially pathogenic bacteria colonizing avian eggshells in the wild. The inhibitory mechanisms underlying this adaptation are poorly understood and only recent experimental evidence demonstrates that keeping eggs dry is a proximate mechanism for the antimicrobial effects of avian incubation. We estimated partial incubation (the bouts of incubation that some birds perform during the egg-laying period, days of lay 3-5 in our population) intensity of female pied flycatchers breeding in nest-boxes using data loggers that allowed a precise measurement of temperature just between the eggs in the nest-cup. We also measured relative humidity within the nest-boxes and related i… Leer más

Ruiz de Castañeda R., Vela AI., Gonzalez-Braojos S., Briones V. and Moreno J.

November 1st, 2011

ArmA methyltransferase in monophasic Salmonella enterica isolated from food

Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy 55(11):5262-6.

     The 16S rRNA methyltransferase ArmA is a worldwide emerging determinant that confers high-level resistance to most clinically relevant aminoglycosides. We report the identification and characterization of a multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies I. 4,12:i:- isolate recovered from chicken meat sampled in a supermarket on February 2009 in La Reunion, a French island in the Indian Ocean. Susceptibility testing showed an unusually high-level resistance to gentamicin as well as to ampicillin, third generation cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Molecular analysis of the 16S rRNA methyltransferases revealed presence of the armA gene together with blaTEM-1, blaCMY-2 and blaCTX-M-3. All these genes could be transferred en bloc t… Leer más

Granier SA., Hidalgo L., San Millan A., Escudero JA., Gutierrez B., Brisabois A. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

November 1st, 2011

Infection of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) with Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium complex in Spain

The Veterinary Journal 190(2):e21-5.

     The prevalence, distribution and pathology related to infection with Mycobacterium bovis and other mycobacteria were determined in trapped (n=36) and road-killed (n=121) badgers in Spain from 2006 to 2010. The prevalence of M. bovis based on bacteriological culture from road-killed badgers was 8/121 (6.6%) and from trapped badgers was 0/36 (0%). Tuberculosis/M. bovis infection was evident in 15/121 (12.4%) road-killed badgers when bacteriology and histopathology were combined. Mycobacterium avium complex was isolated by culture from the tracheal aspirate of 1/36 (2.8%) trapped badgers and from tissue pools from 8/121 (6.6%) road-killed badgers… Leer más

Balseiro A., Rodriguez O., Gonzalez-Quiros P., Merediz I., Sevilla I., Dave D., Dalley DJ., Lesellier S., Chambers MA., Bezos J., Munoz M., Delahay RJ., Gortazar C. and Prieto JM.

November 1st, 2011

Weissella ceti sp. nov., isolated from beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens)

International Journal Of Systematic And Evolutionary Microbiology 61:2758-2762.

     During an investigation into the microbiota of beaked whales, nine isolates were obtained from different organs of four animals. Isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative short rod-shaped or coccoid organisms. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates allocated them to the genus Weissella, showing 96.3% and 96.0% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Weissella viridescens and Weissella minor, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, physiological and phylogenetic evidences, it is proposed that the unknown isolates from whales are classified as a new species of the genus Weissella, Weissella ceti sp. nov. The type strain of Weissella ceti is 1999-1A-09T (=CECT 7719T = CCUG 59653 T)… Leer más

Vela AI., Fernandez A., Bernaldo de Quiros Y., Herraez P., Dominguez L. and Fernandez-Garayzabal JF..

October 21st, 2011

Characterization of protection afforded by a bivalent virus-like particle vaccine against Bluetongue Virus serotypes 1 and 4 in sheep

PLoS ONE 6(10):e26666.

     BACKGROUND: Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important, arthropod borne, emerging pathogen in Europe, causing disease mainly in sheep and cattle. Routine vaccination for bluetongue would require the ability to distinguish between vaccinated and infected individuals (DIVA). Current vaccines are effective but are not DIVA. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are highly immunogenic structural mimics of virus particles, that only contain a subset of the proteins present in a natural infection. VLPs therefore offer the potential for the development of DIVA compatible bluetongue vaccines.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Merino sheep were vaccinated with either monovalent BTV-1 VLPs or a bivalent mixture of BTV-1 VLPs and BTV-4 VLPs, and c… Leer más

Perez de Diego AC., Athmaram TN., Stewart M., Rodriguez B., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Noad R. and Roy P.

October 1st, 2011

Citrobacter freundii Septicemia in a Stranded Newborn Cuvier`s Beaked Whale (Ziphius cavirostris)

Journal Of Wildlife Diseases 47(4):1043-6.

     Citrobacter freundii, a gram-negative enterobacterium, may cause fatal septicemia in humans and animals. Its potential pathogenic role in cetaceans (bottlenose dolphins and beluga whales) has been hypothesized. Here we describe fatal C. freundii septicemia in a stranded newborn Cuvier`s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris)… Leer más

Fernandez A., Vela AI., Andrada M., Herraez P., Diaz-Delgado J., Dominguez L. and Arbelo M.

October 1st, 2011

Associations between biovar and virulence factor genes in Pasteurella multocida isolates from pigs in Spain

The Veterinary Record 169(14):362.

     Two hundred and five isolates of Pasteurella multocida from pigs were phenotypically and genetically characterised by determining their biovar, capsular type, virulence-associated genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. All isolates were identified as P multocida subspecies multocida and most were assigned to biovar 3 (58 per cent) and biovar 2 (39.5 per cent). Biovar 1 represented 2.4 per cent of the isolates. According to the capsular type, the great majority of the isolates (79.0 per cent) belonged to capsular type A, 18.5 per cent belonged to capsular type D and 2.4 per cent were of capsular type F. All isolates harboured ompH, psl, oma87, ptfA, nanB, nanH, tonB, hgbA, sodA and sodC genes, while none of them possesse… Leer más

Garcia N., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Goyache J., Dominguez L. and Vela AI..

October 1st, 2011

Factors influencing the performance of an interferon-y assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis in goats

The Veterinary Journal 190(1):131-135.

     The interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay is an effective tool for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in goats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate factors that might affect assay performance: (1) 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% phenol in purified protein derivative (PPD, tuberculin); (2) dialysis of PPD; and (3) delaying antigenic stimulation of blood samples for 8, 16 and 24 h after collection. The assay was performed in duplicate with two cut-off points. Dialysis of PPD reduced test sensitivity, whereas the concentration of phenol did not significantly affect test outcome. Delaying antigenic stimulation of samples >8 h resulted in a reduction in test sensitivity, compromising the capacity of the assay to detect infected animals. Performing the ass… Leer más

Bezos J., Alvarez J., de Juan L., Romero B., Rodriguez-Campos S., Castellanos E., Saez-Llorente JL., Mateos A., Dominguez L. and Aranaz A.

September 14th, 2011

Protection against Tuberculosis in Eurasian Wild Boar Vaccinated with Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis

PLoS ONE 6(9):e24905.

     Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results o… Leer más

Garrido JM., Sevilla I., Beltran-Beck B., Minguijon E., Ballesteros C., Galindo RC., Boadella M., Lyashchenko KP., Romero B., Geijo MV., Ruiz-Fons F., Aranaz A., Juste R., Vicente J., de la Fuente J. and Gortazar C.

September 1st, 2011

Plasmid-borne 16S rRNA methylase ArmA in aminoglycoside-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Poland

Journal Of Medical Microbiology 60(9):1306-11.

     We characterized 17 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing 16S rRNA methylase ArmA. The isolates originated in Poland from 2002 to May 2010 and encompassed four XbaI-PFGE clusters. All the isolates were resistant to amikacin, gentamicin and kanamycin (MIC range: 256-1024 mg l(-1)) and carried the armA gene on a large plasmid of approximately 90 or 130 kb in 15 and 2 isolates, respectively. The armA gene was found in a ~10 kb ClaI restriction fragment of the large plasmid and was flanked by the same elements as in Tn1548. All the isolates carried the bla(CTX-M) gene for a CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Our results show that ArmA has disseminated horizontally among K. pneumoniae isolates in Poland on the ~90 kb p… Leer más

Zacharczuk K., Piekarska K., Szych J., Jagielski M., Hidalgo L., San Millan A., Gutierrez B., Rastawicki W., Gonzalez-Zorn B. and Gierczynski R.

September 1st, 2011

Limitations of Spoligotyping and Variable Number Tandem Repeat Typing for Molecular Tracing of Mycobacterium bovis in a High Diversity Setting

Journal Of Clinical Microbiology 49(9):3361-3364.

     This study describes the attempt to trace the first Mycobacterium bovis outbreak in alpacas (Lama pacos) in Spain by spoligotyping and VNTR analysis. Due to high genotype diversity no matching source was identified, but local expansion of a clonal group was found and its significance for molecular tracing is discussed… Leer más

Rodriguez-Campos S., Aranaz A., de Juan L., Saez-Llorente JL., Romero B., Bezos J., Jimenez A., Mateos A. and Dominguez L..

August 1st, 2011

Brood parasitism is associated with increased bacterial contamination of host eggs: bacterial loads of host and parasitic eggs

Biological Journal Of The Linnean Society 103(4):836-848.

     Factors related to bacterial environment of nests are of primary interest for understanding the causes of embryo infection and the evolution of antimicrobial defensive traits in birds. Nest visitors such as parasites could act as vectors for bacteria and/or affect the hygienic conditions of nests and hence influence the nest bacterial environment. In the present study, we explored some predictions of this hypothetical scenario in the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius)–magpie (Pica pica) system of brood parasitism. Great spotted cuckoos visit the nests of their magpie hosts and frequently damage some of the host eggs when laying eggs or on subsequent visits. Therefore, it represents a good system for testing the effect of nest visito… Leer más

Soler JJ., Peralta-Sanchez JM., Martinez-Bueno M., Martin-Vivaldi M., Martin-Galvez D., Vela AI., Briones V. and Perez-Contreras T.

August 1st, 2011

Genome sequence of Lactococcus garvieae 8831, isolated from rainbow trout lactococcosis outbreaks in Spain

Journal Of Bacteriology 193(16):4263-4.

     Lactococcus garvieae is the etiological agent of lactococcosis, one of the most important disease threats to the sustainability of rainbow trout farming industry. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus garvieae strain 8831, isolated from diseased rainbow trout, which is composed of 2,087,276 bp with a G+C content of 38%… Leer más

Aguado-Urda M., Lopez-Campos GH., Gibello A., Cutuli MT., Lopez-Alonso V., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF. and Blanco MM.

August 1st, 2011

Genome sequence of Lactococcus garvieae 21881, isolated in a case of human septicaemia

Journal Of Bacteriology 193(15):4033-4.

     Lactococcus garvieae is a Gram-positive bacterium considered as an important opportunistic emerging human pathogen and also a well recognized fish pathogen. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus garvieae strain 21881 (2,164,557 bp, with a G+C content of 37.9%), which represents the first report of a genome sequence on Lactococcus garvieae… Leer más

Aguado-Urda M., Lopez-Campos GH., Blanco MM., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Cutuli MT., Aspiroz C., Lopez-Alonso V. and Gibello A.

August 1st, 2011

European 1: A globally important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis

Infection Genetics And Evolution 11(6):1340-51.

     We have identified a globally important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis by deletion analysis of over one thousand strains from over 30 countries. We initially show that over 99% of the strains of M. bovis, the cause of bovine tuberculosis, isolated from cattle in the Republic of Ireland and the UK are closely related and are members of a single clonal complex marked by the deletion of chromosomal region RDEu1 and we named this clonal complex European 1 (Eu1). Eu1 strains were present at less than 14% of French, Portuguese and Spanish isolates of M. bovis but are rare in other mainland European countries and Iran. However, strains of the Eu1 clonal complex were found at high frequency in former trading partners of the UK (USA, South Af… Leer más

Smith NH., Berg S., Dale J., Allen A., Rodriguez-Campos S., Romero B., Matos F., Ghebremichael S., Karoui C., Donati C., Da Conceicao A., Mucavele C., Kazwala R., Hilty M., Cadmus S., Ngandolo BNR., Habtamu M., Oloya J., Muller A., Milian-Suazo F., Andrievskaia O., Projahn M., Barandiaran S., da Macias A., Muller B., Santos-Zanini M., Yumi Ikuta C., Rosales CA., Pinheiro SR., Figueroa A., Cho S-N., Mosavari N., Chuang P-C., Jou R., Zinsstag J., van Soolingen D., Costello E., Aseffa A., Proano-Perez F., Portaels F., Rigouts L., Cataldi AA., Collins MD., Boschiroli ML., Hewinson RG., Soares J., Surujballi O., Tadyon K., Botelho A., Zarraga AM., Buller N., Skuce R., Michel A., Aranaz A., Gordon SV., Jeon B-Y., Kallenius G., Niemann S., Boniotti B., van Helden P., Harris B., Zumarraga MJ. and Kremer K.

August 1st, 2011

Microscopical and Immunological Features of Tuberculoid Granulomata and Cavitary Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Naturally Infected Goats

Journal Of Comparative Pathology 145(2-3):107-17.

     Caprine tuberculosis is caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae). Although typical tuberculoid granulomata are usually observed in the lungs and lymph nodes of infected goats, the presence of cavitary lesions with exuberant mycobacterial growth is also a common feature in this species. The aim of this study was to characterize the immunological mechanisms that lead to liquefaction and cavity formation by comparing granulomata and cavitary lesions. Samples from animals positive by skin testing were collected for microscopical and immunohistochemical examination. Samples were also collected for analysis of cytokine gene expression in the lesions by real time polymerase chain r… Leer más

Sanchez J., Tomas L., Ortega N., Buendia AJ., del Rio L., Salinas J., Bezos J., Caro MR. and Navarro JA.

August 1st, 2011

Streptococcus rupicaprae sp. nov., isolated from a Pyrenean chamois (Rupricapra pyrenaica)

International Journal Of Systematic And Evolutionary Microbiology 61(Pt 8):1989-93.

     Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on an unknown Gram-positive catalase-negative coccus-shaped organism isolated from clinical samples of a Pyrenean chamois. The microorganism was identified as a streptococcal species based on its cellular morphological and biochemical tests. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison studies confirmed its identification as a member of the genus Streptococcus, but the organism did not correspond to any species of this genus. The nearest phylogenetic relative of the unknown coccus from chamois was Streptococcus ovis (95.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The rpoB and sodA sequence analysis showed sequence similarity values lower than 85.7% and 83.0% respectively, from the currently Streptoco… Leer más

Vela AI., Mentaberre G., Marco I., Velarde R., Lavin S., Dominguez L. and Fernandez-Garayzabal JF..

July 24th, 2011

In vitro growth inhibition of food-borne pathogens and food spoilage microorganism by vitamin K5

Food And Bioprocess Technology 4:1060-1065.

     The study investigates the effectiveness of a synthetic vitamin analogue (vitamin K5) for the growth inhibition of a total of 14 bacterial pathogens, spoilage-inducing bacteria and three spoilage-inducing molds that were tested during this study. Bacterial growth inhibition by vitamin K5 and vitamin K5 combined with sodium chloride (NaCl) were tested by determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) using a broth microdilution method. Antifungal effects of vitamin K5 were determined by measuring the growth of three different spoilage molds on Malt agar plates containing different concentrations of vitamin K5. All bacterial strains assayed were inhibited by vitamin K5 in a range of 64-1,024 µg/ml. When vitamin K5 was combined with … Leer más

Miranda JM., Jorge F., Dominguez L., Cepeda A. and Franco CM.

July 1st, 2011

Assessment of in vivo and in vitro tuberculosis diagnostic tests in Mycobacterium caprae naturally infected caprine flocks

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 100(3-4):187-92.

     Caprine tuberculosis in Spain is mainly caused by Mycobacterium caprae although the progression of the disease and lesion severity is similar to that caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In this study, the sensitivity of the gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) assay using an antigen cocktail containing early secretory antigenic target-6kDa (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) peptides for stimulation was determined and compared with those obtained in single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) and single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin (SICCT) tests and IFN-γ assay using purified protein derivative (PPD) in three different flocks infected with M. caprae under different epidemiological conditions. Correlation between specific IFN-&… Leer más

Bezos J., Alvarez J., de Juan L., Romero B., Rodriguez-Campos S., Fernandez de Mera IG., Hewinson RG., Vordermeier M., Mateos A., Dominguez L. and Aranaz A.

July 1st, 2011

Streptococcus porcorum sp. nov., isolated from domestic and wild pigs

International Journal Of Systematic And Evolutionary Microbiology 61:1585-1589.

     Seven isolates of an unidentified Gram-positive, catalase-negative coccus-shaped organism isolated from domestic and wild pigs, were characterized by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. Based on cellular morphology and biochemical criteria the isolates were tentatively assigned to the genus Streptococcus, although the organisms did not appear to correspond to any recognised species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the unknown bacterium was phylogenetically closely related to, but distinct from Streptococcus suis (97.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The rpoB and sodA sequence analysis showed minimal interspecies divergence values with its close 16S rRNA phylogenetically relatives of 13.8% and 18.6%, respectively.… Leer más

Vela AI., Sanchez V., Mentaberre G., Lavin S., Dominguez L. and Fernandez-Garayzabal JF..

July 1st, 2011

Evaluating surveillance in wild birds by the application of risk assessment of avian influenza introduction into Spain

Epidemiology And Infection 7:1-8.

     Early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in its natural reservoirs is a prerequisite for preventing disease spread to humans. The risk of introduction of H5N1 HPAI was assessed in order to design a risk-based surveillance system in Spain. Areas at highest risk for H5N1 HPAI followed a northeast-southwest direction, with two significant clusters located in the north and the southwest of the country. Most (83%) of the veterinary units (VUs) obtained fewer samples than would have been expected if samples had been collected using a risk-based design. In October 2009, a HPAI outbreak was reported for the first time in a Spanish layer farm located in a VU at high risk for HPAI, but no samples were collected. This risk-based sur… Leer más

Martinez-Aviles M., Perez AM., de la Torre A., Iglesias I., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. and Munoz MJ.

June 15th, 2011

Identifying equine premises at high risk of introduction of vector-borne diseases using geo-statistical and space-time analyses

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 100:100-108.

     The identification of premises that may play an important role in the introduction or spread of animal diseases is fundamental to the development of risk-based surveillance and control programs. A combination of geo-statistical and cluster analysis methods was used to identify geographical areas and periods of time at highest risk for introduction of the African horse sickness virus (AHSV) into the Castile and Leon (CyL) region of Spain. Risk was estimated based on the predicted premises-specific abundance of Culicoides spp., a vector for AHSV, and on the frequency of equine introductions from outside regions. The largest abundance of Culicoides spp. was observed between May and September in the northern region of CyL. Six significant (P-va… Leer más

Martinez-Lopez B., Perez AM. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

June 1st, 2011

Prevalence of Salmonella and Yersinia in Free-Living Pied Flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in Central Spain

Journal Of Zoo And Wildlife Medicine 42(2):313-316.

     Salmonella and Yersinia are important enteropathogens in poultry and can affect birds of all ages, including embryos. These food-borne zoonotic enteropathogens are of great economic and medical concern worldwide and are intensely studied in poultry. Information regarding the prevalence of these bacteria in wild birds is scarce and biased toward avian species ecologically linked to humans, which have often been incriminated as both reservoirs and disseminators of these enteropathogens. The prevalence of Salmonella and Yersinia recovered from both the feces and eggs in a population of female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding in nest-boxes in central Spain was evaluated. Salmonella arizonae was recovered from the feces of one fema… Leer más

Ruiz de Castañeda R., Vela AI., Lobato E., Briones V. and Moreno J.

June 1st, 2011

Prevalence of potentially pathogenic culturable bacteria on eggshells and in cloacae of female Pied Flycatchers in a temperate habitat in central Spain

Journal Of Field Ornithology 82(2):215-224.

     Bacteria grow on avian eggshells and thus can potentially cause diseases in developing embryos. Little is known about culturable bacteria colonizing avian eggshells in free-living birds, with most studies restricted to poultry. Our objective was to examine the culturable bacterial array growing on eggshells during incubation that could negatively affect hatching success of Pied Flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a temperate montane habitat in central Spain. Cloacal culturable bacteria of females were also analyzed because bacteria can be vertically transmitted from females to eggs. We used fecal samples as surrogates of cloacal samples due to the small size of sampled birds. We found that eggshells and female cloacae of Pied Flycatchers ha… Leer más

Ruiz de Castañeda R., Vela AI., Lobato E., Briones V. and Moreno J.

June 1st, 2011

Molecular characterization of spa type t127, sequence type 1 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from pigs

The Journal Of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 66(6):1231-5.

     Objectives The aim of this study was to provide molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) spa type t127, sequence type (ST) 1 isolates, detected in a European baseline survey in holdings of breeding pigs, to determine phenotypic and genotypic drug resistance and to compare the results with those obtained from a collection of t127, ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) clinical isolates. Methods Twenty-four t127, ST1 MRSA from dust sampled in different breeding holdings in Italy, Spain and Cyprus were studied, along with 2 t127, ST1 MRSA from fattening pigs and 11 human t127, ST1 MRSA and MSSA. Genotyping was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and PFGE. SCCmec … Leer más

Franco A., Hasman H., Iurescia M., Lorenzetti R., Stegger M., Pantosti A., Feltrin F., Ianzano A., Porrero MC., Liapi M. and Battisti A.

June 1st, 2011

The testing season affects red deer skinfold increase in response to phytohaemagglutinin

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 100(1):79-83.

     Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have a pronounced seasonality in their physiology. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the season on red deer responsiveness to skin testing with the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) mitogen. Study subjects included 270 farmed adult red deer (19 stags and 251 hinds). The skin testing was carried out between January 2009 and August 2010. The animals were injected intradermally with a 0.1ml volume containing 250μg of PHA diluted in phosphate buffered saline. The skinfold thickness was measured immediately prior to injection and 72h after administration, always by the same person and with three repeats per measurement. Single effects of sex and time on skin test responsiveness were significant (p<0.001) as… Leer más

Fernandez de Mera IG., Jaroso R., Martin-Hernando MP., Queiros J., Carta T., Ortiz JA., Vicente J. and Gortazar C.

June 1st, 2011

Analysis of the spatial variation of Bovine tuberculosis disease risk in Spain (2006-2009)

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 100(1):44-52.

     In this study we explored the spatial variation of Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) risk of being positive, new positive or persistently positive, as well as the risk of eliminating BTB in positive herds throughout Spain from 2006 to 2009 by means of hierarchical Bayesian models. The results of the models showed that the risk of infection (positive or new positive herds), persistence and elimination was lower in counties located in north and north-eastern of Spain, and in the Balearic and Canary islands than in the rest of the country. In some counties the risk of positivity was high during the four years of study, whereas there were others where the risk of positivity was high only in some of the years. With regard to the risk of persistence of B… Leer más

Allepuz A., Casal J., Napp S., Saez M., Alba A., Vilar M., Domingo M., Gonzalez MA., Duran-Ferrer M., Vicente J., Alvarez J., Munoz M. and Saez-Llorente JL.

April 30th, 2011

Prevalence of SOS-mediated control of integron integrase expression as an adaptive trait of chromosomal and mobile integrons

Mobile DNA 2(1):6.

     BACKGROUND: Integrons are found in hundreds of environmental bacterial species, but are mainly known as the agents responsible for the capture and spread of antibiotic resistance determinants among Gram-negative pathogens. The SOS response is a regulatory network under control of the repressor protein LexA targeted at addressing DNA damage, thus promoting genetic variation in times of stress. We recently reported a direct link between the SOS response and the expression of integron integrases in Vibrio cholerae and a plasmid-borne class 1 mobile integron. SOS regulation enhances cassette swapping and capture in stressful conditions, while freezing the integron in steady environments. We conducted a systematic study of available integron int… Leer más

Cambray G., Sanchez-Alberola N., Campoy S., Guerin E., Da Re S., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Ploy MC., Barbe J., Mazel D. and Erill I.

April 1st, 2011

Utility of a Panviral Microarray for Detection of Swine Respiratory Viruses in Clinical Samples

Journal Of Clinical Microbiology 49(4):1542-8.

     Several factors have recently converged elevating the need for highly parallel diagnostic platforms that have the ability to detect many known, novel, and emerging pathogenic agents simultaneously. Panviral DNA microarrays represent the most robust approach for massively parallel viral surveillance and detection. The Virochip is a panviral DNA microarray that is capable of detecting all known viruses, as well as novel viruses related to known viral families in a single assay, and has been used to successfully identify known and novel viral agents in clinical human specimens. However, the usefulness and the sensitivity of the Virochip platform has not been tested on a set of clinical veterinary specimens with the high degree of genetic varia… Leer más

Nicholson TL., Kukielka D., Vincent AL., Brockmeier SL., Miller LC. and Faaberg KS.

April 1st, 2011

Phylogenetic analysis of a new Cetacean morbillivirus from a short-finned pilot whale stranded in the Canary Islands

Research In Veterinary Science 90(2):324-8.

     Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) is considered the most pathogenic virus in cetaceans. Three strains have been already described: the dolphin morbillivirus (DMV), the porpoise morbillivirus (PMV) and the tentatively named pilot whale morbillivirus (PWMV). This study describes the molecular characterization of a strain of CeMV detected in the brain of a short-finned pilot whale that had stranded in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean around the Canary Islands and that showed lesions compatible with morbilliviral disease. Sequences for the nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, fusion protein and haemagglutinin genes were obtained. The phylogenetic study showed high homology (97%) with the PWMV strain previously detected from a long-finned pilot whale stranded i… Leer más

Belliere EN., Esperon F., Fernandez A., Arbelo M., Munoz MJ. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

April 1st, 2011

Management of an outbreak of brucellosis due to B.melitensis in dairy cattle in Spain

Research In Veterinary Science 90(2):208-11.

     Brucella melitensis is a major human and animal pathogen, with a wide host range that includes all domestic ruminant species, although small ruminants are its preferred hosts. Outbreaks in cattle due to B. melitensis have become a worldwide emerging problem particularly difficult to control due to the lack of knowledge on the epidemiology in this host species and of an effective vaccine. However, combination of molecular tools and strict biosecurity measures can help to solve these difficulties and eventually eradicate the disease from infected herds. In the present report, management of an outbreak in Spain involving four farms, more than 2000 cattle and several human cases is described. Application of Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) a… Leer más

Alvarez J., Saez-Llorente JL., Garcia N., Serrat C., Perez-Sancho M., Gonzalez S., Ortega MJ., Gou J., Carbajo L., Garrido F., Goyache J. and Dominguez L..

March 1st, 2011

Mycobacterium caprae Infection in Livestock and Wildlife, Spain

Emerging Infectious Diseases 17(3):532-535.

     Mycobacterium caprae is a pathogen that can infect animals and humans. To better understand the epidemiology of M. caprae, we spoligotyped 791 animal isolates. Results suggest infection is widespread in Spain, affecting 6 domestic and wild animal species. The epidemiology is driven by infections in caprids, although the organism has emerged in cattle… Leer más

Rodriguez-Campos S., Bezos J., Romero B., de Juan L., Alvarez J., Castellanos E., Moya N., Lozano F., Tariq-Javed M., Liebana E., Mateos A., Dominguez L., Aranaz A. and Spanish Network on Surveillance and Monitoring of Animal Tuberculosis.

February 1st, 2011

African 2, a Clonal Complex of Mycobacterium bovis Epidemiologically Important in East Africa

Journal Of Bacteriology 193(3):670-8.

     We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. Af2 strains are defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf2) and can be identified by the absence of spacers 3 to 7 in their spoligotype patterns. Deletion analysis of M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Mali, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, and Mozambique did not identify any strains of the Af2 clonal complex, suggesting that this clonal complex of M. bovis is localised in East Africa. The specific spoligotype pattern of the Af2 clonal complex was rarely identified among isolates from outside… Leer más

Berg S., Garcia-Pelayo MC., Muller B., Hailu E., Asiimwe B., Kremer K., Dale J., Boniotti B., Rodriguez-Campos S., Hilty M., Rigouts L., Firdessa R., Machado A., Mucavele C., Ngandolo BNR., Bruchfeld J., Boschiroli ML., Muller A., Sahraoui N., Pacciarini M., Cadmus S., Joloba M., van Soolingen D., Michel AL., Djonne B., Aranaz A., Zinsstag J., van Helden P., Portaels F., Kazwala R., Kallenius G., Hewinson RG., Aseffa A., Gordon SV. and Smith NH.

February 1st, 2011

Bacterial loads on eggshells of the Pied Flycatcher:environmental and maternal factors

The Condor 113(1):200-208.

     We studied environmental and maternal factors explaining bacterial loads on eggshells in a population of a hole-nesting passerine, the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) and the possible effects of bacteria on hatching success. We collected bacteria from eggshells at early and late stages of incubation and from females’ feces, as a surrogate for cloacal samples, at intermediate stages of incubation. Higher environmental temperatures during laying promoted bacterial loads on the eggshells during early incubation, supporting the fact that bacterial growth is generally favored by increasing ambient temperature. Bacterial loads on the eggshells at late stages of
incubation were correlated positively with bacterial loads in the female’s… Leer más

Ruiz de Castañeda R., Vela AI., Lobato E., Briones V. and Moreno J.

January 27th, 2011

A novel spatial and stochastic model to evaluate the within- and between-farm transmission of classical swine fever virus. I. General concepts and description of the model

Veterinary Microbiology 147(3-4):300-9.

     A new stochastic and spatial model was developed to evaluate the potential spread of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) within- and between-farms, and considering the specific farm-to-farm contact network. Within-farm transmission was simulated using a modified SI model. Between-farm transmission was assumed to occur by direct contacts (i.e. animal movement) and indirect contacts (i.e. local spread, vehicle and person contacts) and considering the spatial location of farms. Control measures dictated by the European legislation (i.e. depopulation of infected farms, movement restriction, zoning, surveillance, contact tracing) were also implemented into the model. Model experimentation was performed using real data from Segovia, one of the pro… Leer más

Martinez-Lopez B., Ivorra B., Ramos AM. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

January 4th, 2011

Diagnostic performance of PCR and ELISA on blood and milk samples and serological survey for small ruminant lentiviruses in central Spain

The Veterinary Record 168(1):20.

     The diagnostic performance of an ELISA for the detection of antibodies to the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in milk and corresponding blood samples was evaluated in 50 sheep. The agreement between ELISA results in blood and milk was 90 per cent, and the κ value was 0.79. In addition, a serological survey in the central zone of Spain was performed using milk samples from 413 animals (250 sheep and 163 goats) from 12 flocks/herds. All flocks/herds had some animals that were positive for SRLV. Among the animals, 60.0 per cent of the sheep and 8.0 per cent of the goats tested were seropositive. Each sample was also tested using a PCR technique, which increased the percentage … Leer más

Barquero N., Arjona A., Domenech A., Toural C., Las Heras A., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Ruiz-Santa Quiteria JA. and Gomez-Lucia E.

January 1st, 2011

Contribution of ROB-1 and PBP3 mutations to the resistance phenotype of a ß-lactamase-positive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant Haemophilus influenzae carrying plasmid pB1000 in Italy

The Journal Of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 66(1):96-99.

     Plasmid pB1000 bearing blaROB-1 is responsible for high-level ß-lactam resistance in Haemophilus influenzae as well as in Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis isolates from Spain. Here, we explore the presence of ROB-1 in Italy and investigate the relative contribution of penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) mutations and ROB-1 to the ß-lactam resistance phenotype in H. influenzae.
The collection of the Italian Reference Laboratory of H. influenzae was investigated for ROB-1-positive isolates between 2004 and 2009. H. influenzae Rd KW20 was used as recipient for pB1000 electroporation and for mutagenesis of the ftsI gene encoding PBP3.
The presence of plasmid pB1000 in a non-typeable H. influenzae isolated in Italy,… Leer más

San Millan A., Giufre M., Escudero JA., Hidalgo L., Gutierrez B., Cerquetti M. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

January 1st, 2011

Epidemiological investigation of a Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis outbreak in swine

Epidemiology And Infection 139(1):143-8.

     Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (Mah) infection in swine may cause granulomatous lesions in lymph nodes that must undergo differential diagnosis with those caused by M. tuberculosis complex members. In addition, Mah outbreaks can lead to severe economical losses due to condemnation of carcasses. A number of potential sources of infection for animals can usually be identified in infected farms. The present report describes the application of several molecular characterization techniques in order to identify the possible environmental sources of Mah infection in an outbreak involving four breeding farms and six fattening farms. Molecular profiles obtained from Mah strains suggest a likely epidemiological link between clinical and e… Leer más

Alvarez J., Castellanos E., Romero B., Aranaz A., Bezos J., Rodriguez-Campos S., Mateos A., Dominguez L. and de Juan L..

January 1st, 2011

Reproductive ratio for the local spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild bird populations of Europe, 2005-2008

Epidemiology And Infection 139:99-104.

     Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has devastating consequences for the poultry industry of affected countries. Control of HPAI has been impaired by the role of wildlife species that act as disease reservoirs and as a potential source of infection for domestic populations. The reproductive ratio (R0) of HPAI was quantified in nine clusters of outbreaks detected in wild birds in Europe (2005-2008) for which population data were not available. The median value of R0 was similar (1.1-3.4) for the nine clusters and it was about tenfold smaller than the value estimated for poultry in The Netherlands in 2003. Results presented here will be useful to parameterize models for spread of HPAI in wild birds and to design effective prevention prog… Leer más

Iglesias I., Perez AM., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Munir A., Martinez-Aviles M. and de la Torre A.

Science Publication
ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 250 SUAT 61 SUAT 15
2 ICM 237 ZTA 53 MYC 11
3 MYC 227 MYC 48 SAP 11
4 SUAT 219 ICM 40 ZTA 6
5 NED 75 SAP 31 ICM 4
  VISAVET 1124 315 55

Impact Factor Average
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 3.907 ZTA 5.359 ZTA 6.183
2 SAP 3.818 SUAT 4.227 SAP 6.06
3 SUAT 2.987 SAP 4.095 NED 4.3
4 MYC 2.8 NED 3.858 SUAT 4.287
5 DICM 2.776 ICM 3.798 MYC 3.118
VISAVET 3.284 4.885 6.794

ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo.
1 Transbound Emerg Dis 93 Front Vet Sci 35
2 Vet Microbiol 88 Transbound Emerg Dis 32
3 Prev Vet Med 77 Animals 15
4 Front Vet Sci 61 Res Vet Sci 14
5 PLoS ONE 56 Sci Rep 14
  All journals 354   All journals 39