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SCI scientific publications 2022

December 24th, 2022

Molecular Epidemiology of Pasteurella multocida Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

Animals 13(1):75.

     Studies that characterize bovine respiratory disease (BRD)-associated Pasteurella multocida isolates are scarce compared with research on isolates from other hosts and clinical backgrounds. In the present study, 170 P. multocida isolates from 125 BRD outbreaks were characterized by capsular and LPS typing as well as by virulotyping. Three capsular types (A, B, F) and three LPS genotypes (L2, L3, L6) were identified. Capsular and LPS typing revealed a very low genetic diversity (GD = 0.02) among P. multocida, with most isolates belonging to genotype A:L3 (97.6%). Virulotyping identified seven virulence-associated gene profiles, with two profiles including 95.9% of the isolates. A subset of isolates was further characterized by MLST and PFGE.… Leer más

Calderón-Bernal JM., Fernandez A., Arnal JL., Sanz-Tejero C., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Vela AI. and Cid D.

December 22nd, 2022

EPI-Net One Health reporting guideline for antimicrobial consumption and resistance surveillance data: a Delphi approach

Health Policy 26:100563.

     Strategic and standardised approaches to analysis and reporting of surveillance data are essential to inform antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mitigation measures, including antibiotic policies. Targeted guidance on linking full-scale AMR and antimicrobial consumption (AMC)/antimicrobial residues (AR) surveillance data from the human, animal, and environmental sectors is currently needed. This paper describes the initiative whereby a multidisciplinary panel of experts (56 from 20 countries—52 high income, 4 upper middle or lower income), representing all three sectors, elaborated proposals for structuring and reporting full-scale AMR and AMC/AR surveillance data across the three sectors. An evidence-supported, modified Delphi approach was adop… Leer más

Babu-Rajendran N., Arieti F., Mena-Benitez CA., Galia L., Tebon M., Alvarez J., Gladstone BP., Collineau L., de Angelis G., Duro R., Gaze W., Gopel S., Kanj SS., Kasbohrer A., Limmathurotsakul D., Lopez de Abechuco E., Mazzolini E., Mutters NT., Pezzani MD., Presterl E., Tacconelli E. and EPI-Net One Health.

December 22nd, 2022

A proof-of-concept study to investigate the efficacy of heat-inactivated autovaccines in Mycobacterium caprae experimentally challenged goats

Scientific Reports 12(1):22132.

     This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a heat-inactivated Mycobacterium caprae (HIMC) vaccine in goats experimentally challenged with the same strain of M. caprae. Twenty-one goats were divided into three groups of seven: vaccinated with heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (HIMB), with HIMC and unvaccinated. At 7 weeks post-vaccination all animals were endobronchially challenged with M. caprae. Blood samples were collected for immunological assays and clinical signs were recorded throughout the experiment. All goats were euthanized at 9 weeks post-challenge. Gross pathological examination, analysis of lung pathology using computed tomography, and bacterial load quantification in pulmonary lymph nodes (LN) by qPCR were carried out. Only… Leer más

Melgarejo C., Planas C., Cobos A., Arrieta-Villegas C., Sevilla IA., Bezos J., Moll X., Espada Y., Garrido JM., Domingo M., Vidal E. and Perez del Val B.

December 21st, 2022

Genomics, Transcriptomics, and Metabolomics Reveal That Minimal Modifications in the Host Are Crucial for the Compensatory Evolution of ColE1-Like Plasmids

MSphere 7(6):e0018422.

     Plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance is one of the major threats to public health worldwide. The mechanisms involved in the plasmid/host coadaptation are still poorly characterized, and their understanding is crucial to comprehend the genesis and evolution of multidrug-resistant bacteria. With this purpose, we designed an experimental evolution using Haemophilus influenzae RdKW20 as the model strain carrying the ColE1-like plasmid pB1000. Five H. influenzae populations adapted previously to the culture conditions were transformed with pB1000 and subsequently evolved to compensate for the plasmid-associated fitness cost. Afterward, we performed an integrative multiomic analysis combining genomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics to ex… Leer más

Ares M., Fernandez-Garcia M., Wedel E., Montero N., Barba C., Fernanda Rey-Stolle M., García A. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

December 20th, 2022

Environmental factors driving fine-scale ixodid tick abundance patterns

Science Of The Total Environment 853:158633.

     Tick abundance is an essential demographic parameter to infer tick-borne pathogen transmission risks. Spatiotemporal patterns of tick abundance are heterogeneous, so its determinants at small spatial scales need to be understood to reduce their negative effects on hosts. Current knowledge of these determinants is scarce, especially in Mediterranean environments, limiting the possibilities for designing efficient tick control strategies. With the goal of unravelling tick abundance determinants and informing new tick management strategies, we estimated tick burdens on 1965 wild ungulates in Doñana National Park, Spain, annually between 2010 and 2020. Under the hypothesis of a predominant host influence on tick abundance, we modelled the burde… Leer más

Peralbo-Moreno A., Baz-Flores S., Cuadrado-Matias R., Barroso P., Triguero-Ocana R., Jiménez-Ruiz S., Herraiz C., Ruiz-Rodriguez C., Acevedo P. and Ruiz-Fons F.

December 13rd, 2022

Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology of the Spread of African Swine Fever in Wild Boar and the Role of Environmental Factors in South Korea

Viruses-Basel 14(12):2779.

     Since the first confirmation of African swine fever (ASF) in domestic pig farms in South Korea in September 2019, ASF continues to expand and most notifications have been reported in wild boar populations. In this study, we first performed a spatio-temporal cluster analysis to understand ASF spread in wild boar. Secondly, generalized linear logistic regression (GLLR) model analysis was performed to identify environmental factors contributing to cluster formation. In the meantime, the basic reproduction number (R0) for each cluster was estimated to understand the growth of the epidemic. The cluster analysis resulted in the detection of 17 spatio-temporal clusters. The GLLR model analysis identified factors influencing cluster formation and i… Leer más

Ito S., Bosch J., Jeong H., Aguilar-Vega C., Park J., Martinez-Aviles M. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

December 1st, 2022

A multicategory logit model detecting temporal changes in antimicrobial resistance

PLoS ONE 17(12):e0277866.

     Monitoring and investigating temporal trends in antimicrobial data is a high priority for human and animal health authorities. Timely detection of temporal changes in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) can rely not only on monitoring and analyzing the proportion of resistant isolates based on the use of a clinical or epidemiological cut-off value, but also on more subtle changes and trends in the full distribution of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The nature of the MIC distribution is categorical and ordinal (discrete). In this contribution, we developed a particular family of multicategory logit models for estimating and modelling MIC distributions over time. It allows the detection of a multitude of temporal trends in the full… Leer más

Aerts M., Teng KT., Jaspers S. and Alvarez J..

December 1st, 2022

Extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin, collagen III, and collagen I) immunoexpression in goat tuberculous granulomas (Mycobacterium caprae)

Veterinary Research Communications 46(4):1147-1156.

     The lesion resulting from the interaction between Mycobacterium and the host immune response is the tuberculous granuloma. Tuberculous granulomas, except in incipient stages, are partially or totally encapsulated by connective tissue. The aim of this study was to assess the immunoexpression of the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, collagen III, and collagen I in granulomas caused by Mycobacterium caprae in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) to understand capsule development at different granuloma stages. For this purpose, a retrospective study of 56 samples of tuberculous granulomas in lung (n = 30) and mediastinal lymph node (n = 26) from 17 goats naturally infected with M. caprae in stages I (n = 15), II (n = 14) and III (n = 27) was … Leer más

Neila Mota C., Rebollada A., Bezos J., de Juan L., Dominguez L. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

December 1st, 2022

Exploiting 16S rRNA-based metagenomics to reveal neglected microorganisms associated with infertility in breeding bulls in Spanish extensive herds

Research In Veterinary Science 150:52-57.

     Bovine infectious infertility represents a problem due to the high impact on animal production and, in many cases, in public health. A lack of information on the characteristics of the bacterial population of the bovine reproductive system can hamper a comprehensive understanding of reproductive pathologies and the role that the microbiome could play. A metagenomic study based on the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was performed in 1029 preputial samples from bulls raised in an extensive regimen in Spain (944 from herds with low fertility rates -case group-, and 85 samples from reproductively healthy herds -control group-). The most representative phyla as well as the most 10 abundant bacterial families and their a… Leer más

Polo C., Hernandez M., Garcia-Seco T., Fernandez V., Briones V., Diez-Guerrier A., Abad D., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., Dominguez L. and Perez-Sancho M..

December 1st, 2022

Animal abuse in Spanish-breed fighting cocks (Gallus gallus domesticus)

Forensic Science International: Animals And Environments 2:100050.

     Cockfighting is illegal both in the European Union and the United States, although fighting cock husbandry and breed preservation are allowed. Here, we describe the pathological findings observed in the carcasses of two Spanish-breed fighting cocks submitted to our laboratory after an animal abuse-suspected death. The postmortem examination revealed these cocks may have been used for cockfighting (comb, ear lobes, wattles, and chest feather removal; and trimmed spurs). The severe extensive hemorrhages observed in the cervical region of both birds, affecting C1-C4 in bird No. 1 and C8-C11 in No. 2, suggested cervical dislocation in a non-professional manner. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of abuse in a Spanish-breed f… Leer más

Rebollada A., Barcena C., Barreno-San Antolin L., Pizarro M., Dominguez L. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

November 10th, 2022

Effect of a recent parenteral dexamethasone and ketoprofen administration on the immunological diagnosis of tuberculosis in goats

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 9:1042428.

     Caprine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonosis caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Caprine TB eradication programmes are based mainly on intradermal tuberculin tests and slaughterhouse surveillance. Different factors may affect the performance of the TB diagnostic tests used in caprine herds and, therefore, their ability to detect infected animals. The present study evaluates the effect of the fraudulent administration of two anti-inflammatory substances, dexamethasone and ketoprofen, on the performance of the TB diagnostic techniques used in goats, as well as the suitability of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their detection in hair samples. The animals (n = 90) were distributed in three groups: (… Leer más

Ortega J., de Juan L., Sevilla IA., Garrido JM., Velasco-Reinaldos C., Romero B., Dominguez M., Perez del Val B., Nebot C., Saez-Llorente JL., Alvarez J. and Bezos J..

November 4th, 2022

Detection and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterobacteriaceae other than Escherichia Coli in Raccoons from the Madrid Region of Spain

Journal Of Veterinary Research 66(4):565-569.

     Introduction: Raccoons are an invasive alien species widely distributed in the Madrid region of Spain. These animals can carry a variety of enteric bacteria with associated antimicrobial resistance, which can infect humans and livestock. However, to our knowledge, the presence of non-E. coli Enterobacteriaceae in raccoons has not been previously studied.
Material and methods: We conducted a study to examine the species distribution of Enterobacteriaceae isolates other than E. coli, as well as their antimicrobial resistance, in the faeces of 83 raccoons in the Madrid region.
Results: We detected 12 Enterobacteriaceae isolates other than E. coli belonging to seven different species: Citrobacter freundii (1 isolate), Citrobacte… Leer más

Orden JA., Martinez-Rodrigo A., Vela AI., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Hurtado-Morillas C., Mas A. and Dominguez-Bernal G.

November 1st, 2022

P22 protein complex in the serodiagnosis of animal tuberculosis: Antigenic stability and cross-reactivity with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection

Comparative Immunology, Microbiology And Infectious Diseases 90-91:101891.

     The P22 ELISA was recently developed for the serodiagnosis of animal tuberculosis. Herein, the stability of the P22 antigen in different presentations and storage conditions, and the cross-reactivity with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in small ruminants were evaluated. For the stability assay, serum samples from cows, sheep, goats, alpacas, badgers, and wild boar were used in the P22 ELISA. The cross-reactivity analysis used sera from sheep and goats with caseous lymphadenitis (CLA). Differences in the immune recognition of P22 were found when the antigen was stored at 40 °C, but without altering the negative or positive status of each sample. P22 ELISA presented 5.71 % cross-reactivity when CLA-positive sheep were evaluated,… Leer más

Doria-Barral T., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Moreno I., de Garnica-Garcia MG., Perez del Val B., Gortazar C., Meyer B., Portela RD., Dominguez L., Dominguez M. and Balseiro A.

November 1st, 2022

A subunit vaccine candidate based on the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 prevents infectious virus shedding in cats

Research In Veterinary Science 148:52-64.

     Of the numerous animal species affected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, cats are one of the most susceptible, and cat-to-cat transmission has been described. Although cat-to-human infection has not, as yet, been demonstrated, preventive measures should be taken in order to avoid both viral infection in cats and transmission among them. In this respect, the application of an effective vaccine to at-risk populations would be a useful tool for controlling the disease in this species. Here, we test a new vaccine prototype based on the Spike protein of the virus in order to prevent infection and infectious virus shedding in cats. The vaccine employed in experimentation, and which is easily produced, triggered a strong neutralizing antibody response in … Leer más

Barroso-Arevalo S., Sánchez-Morales L., Dominguez M., Garcia-Seco T., Risalde MA., Garcia-Bocanegra I., Dominguez L. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

October 29th, 2022

Increasing the data on elasmobranch plasma protein electrophoresis: electrophoretogram reference values determination in the undulate skate (Raja Undulata) and the nursehound shark (Scyliorhinus stellaris) maintained under human care

BMC Veterinary Research 18(1):380.

     Background: This study determined plasma protein electrophoresis (PPE) reference intervals in two elasmobranch species: the undulate skate (Raja undulata) and the nursehound shark (Scyliorhinus stellaris), using a reference population of 48 undulate skates (27 males, 21 females) and 62 nursehounds (32 males, 30 females), considered to be clinically healthy. Plasma samples were analyzed using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE).
Results: The undulate skate electrophoretogram resembled those previously reported in other batoids and could be divided into seven consistent fractions. No statistically significant differences were detected between sexes and developmental stages. The nursehound electrophoretogram was similar to that previou… Leer más

Moron-Elorza P., Rojo-Solis C., Steyrer C., Alvaro-Alvarez T., Valls-Torres M., Ortega J., Encinas T. and Garcia-Parraga D.

October 28th, 2022

Hidden dissemination of carbapenem-susceptible OXA-48-producing Proteus mirabilis

The Journal Of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 77(11):3009-3015.

     Objectives: To detect a potential hidden dissemination of the blaOXA-48 gene among Proteus mirabilis isolates obtained from a single centre.
Methods: P. mirabilis from diverse clinical samples presenting an ESBL phenotype or obtained from blood cultured from 2017 to 2019 were evaluated. Bacterial identification was performed using MALDI-TOF MS. MICs were determined using International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard microdilution and interpreted following EUCAST guidelines. WGS was performed using both short- and long-read technologies and assemblies were done using Unicycler. Resistomes were assessed using the ResFinder database. SNPs were detected using the PATRIC bioinformatics platform. Cloning experiments were pe… Leer más

Pedraza R., Kieffer N., Guzman-Puche J., Artacho MJ., Pitart C., Hernandez-Garcia M., Vila J., Canton R. and Martinez-Martinez L.

October 24th, 2022

Antimicrobial resistance and One Health

Revista Espannola De Quimioterapia 35 Suppl 3:37-40.

     Antimicrobial resistance is one of the major health problems we face in the 21st century. Nowadays we cannot understand global health without the interdependence between the human, animal and environmental dimensions. It is therefore logical to adopt a "One Health" approach to address this problem. In this review we show why a collaboration of all sectors and all professions is necessary in order to achieve optimal health for people, animals, plants and our environment… Leer más

Serna C. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

October 20th, 2022

Good and bad get together: Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in particulate matter pollution from different fuels

Science Of The Total Environment 844:157241.

     Air pollution and associated particulate matter (PM) affect environmental and human health worldwide. The intense vehicle usage and the high population density in urban areas are the main causes of this public health impact. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence on the effect of air pollution on airborne SARS-CoV-2 transmission and COVID-19 disease prevalence and symptomatology. However, the causal relationship between air pollution and COVID-19 is still under investigation. Based on these results, the question addressed in this study was how long SARS-CoV-2 survives on the surface of PM from different origin to evaluate the relationship between fuel and atmospheric pollution and virus transmission risk. The persistence and viabili… Leer más

de la Fuente J., Armas O., Barroso-Arevalo S., Gortazar C., Garcia-Seco T., Buendia A., Villanueva F., Soriano JA., Mazuecos L., Vaz-Rodrigues R., Garcia-Contreras R., García A., Monsalve-Serrano J., Dominguez L. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

October 17th, 2022

Cecal Reduction of Brachyspira and Lesion Severity in Laying Hens Supplemented with Fermented Defatted ‘Alperujo’

Fermentation 8(10), 550.

     Antimicrobial resistance demands the development of therapeutic alternatives such as prebiotics, probiotics, and nutraceuticals. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial proprieties of the nutraceutical fermented defatted “alperujo”, derived from olive oil production, in a laying hen farm (n = 122,250) endemic with avian intestinal spirochetosis (Brachyspira spp.). Part of the batch (n = 1440) was divided into six groups of 240 hens each that included 80 or 108-week-old laying hens, supplemented with 0%, 2%, or 6% fermented defatted ‘alperujo’ for a month. At the end of the experiment, eight hens from each group were autopsied and cecal content was subjected to (i) Brachyspira culture and species identification by PCRs, and (ii… Leer más

Rebollada A., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Gómez-Buendía A., Barcena C., Garcia N., Dominguez L. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

October 1st, 2022

Effect of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccine on the lesions and immunopathology developed in target tissues of naturally MAP-infected goats

Veterinary Microbiology 273:109543.

     Paratuberculosis (PTB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), which affects a broad range of hosts, including domestic and wild animals. PTB is a chronic granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis that compromises animal welfare and causes economic losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercial heat-inactivated MAP vaccine on lesions and immunopathology developed in the target tissues of goats naturally infected with MAP. Lesions compatible with PTB in the intestine and regional lymph nodes (LNs), as well as local immune response to MAP, were evaluated and compared in Gudair®-vaccinated (n = 14) and unvaccinated (n = 11) goats from a MAP-infected farm. The percentage of a… Leer más

Agullo-Ros I., Andrada M., Perez-Sancho M., Roy A., Bezos J., Bonnet T., Moreno I., Paz-Sanchez Y., Dominguez M., Gomez-Villamandos JC., Dominguez L. and Risalde MA.

October 1st, 2022

Heat inactivated mycobacteria, alpha-Gal and zebrafish: Insights gained from experiences with two promising trained immunity inductors and a validated animal model

Immunology 167(2):139-153.

     Trained immunity (TRAIM) may be defined as a form of memory where innate immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic and natural killer (NK) cells undergo an epigenetic reprogramming that enhances their primary defensive capabilities. Cross-pathogen protective TRAIM can be triggered in different hosts by exposure to live microbes or microbe-derived products such as heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis or with the glycan α-Gal to elicit protective responses against several pathogens. We review the TRAIM paradigm using two models representing distinct scales of immune sensitization: the whole bacterial cell and one of its building blocks, the polysaccharides or glycans. Observations point out to macrophage lytic capabilities a… Leer más

Juste RA., Ferreras-Colino E., de la Fuente JM., Dominguez M., Risalde MA., Dominguez L., Cabezas-Cruz A. and Gortazar C.

September 3rd, 2022

Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolates from fattening pigs in Spain

BMC Veterinary Research 18(1):333.

     Swine are considered a major source of foodborne salmonellosis, a public health issue further complicated by the circulation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains that threaten the safety of the food chain. The current study aimed to identify patterns that can help to understand the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella in pigs in Spain through the application of several multivariate statistical methods to data from the AMR national surveillance programs from 2001 to 2017.

A total of 1,318 pig Salmonella isolates belonging to 63 different serotypes were isolated and their AMR profiles were determined. Tetracycline resistance across provinces in Spain was the highest among all antimicrobials and rang… Leer más

Teng KT., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Moreno MA., Saez-Llorente JL., Collado S., De Frutos C., Dominguez L. and Alvarez J..

September 1st, 2022

Evaluation of the clinical evolution and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats by simulating natural routes of infection

Veterinary Research Communications 46(3):837-852.

     Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current pandemic disease denominated as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several studies suggest that the original source of this virus was a spillover from an animal reservoir and its subsequent adaptation to humans. Of all the different animals affected, cats are one of the most susceptible species. Moreover, several cases of natural infection in domestic and stray cats have been reported in the last few months. Although experimental infection assays have demonstrated that cats are successfully infected and can transmit the virus to other cats by aerosol, the conditions used for these experiments have not been specified in terms of ventilation. … Leer más

Barroso-Arevalo S., Sánchez-Morales L., Barasona JA., Rivera B., Sanchez R., Risalde MA., Argullo-Ros I. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

August 26th, 2022

The expression of aminoglycoside resistance genes in integron cassettes is not controlled by riboswitches

Nucleic Acids Research 50(15):8566-8579.

     Regulation of gene expression is a key factor influencing the success of antimicrobial resistance determinants. A variety of determinants conferring resistance against aminoglycosides (Ag) are commonly found in clinically relevant bacteria, but whether their expression is regulated or not is controversial. The expression of several Ag resistance genes has been reported to be controlled by a riboswitch mechanism encoded in a conserved sequence. Yet this sequence corresponds to the integration site of an integron, a genetic platform that recruits genes of different functions, making the presence of such a riboswitch counterintuitive. We provide, for the first time, experimental evidence against the existence of such Ag-sensing riboswitch. We … Leer más

Hipolito A., Garcia-Pastor L., Blanco P., Trigo de Roza F., Kieffer N., Vergara E., Jove T., Alvarez J. and Escudero JA..

August 23rd, 2022

Harmonisation of in-silico next-generation sequencing based methods for diagnostics and surveillance

Scientific Reports 12(1):14372.

     Improvements in cost and speed of next generation sequencing (NGS) have provided a new pathway for delivering disease diagnosis, molecular typing, and detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Numerous published methods and protocols exist, but a lack of harmonisation has hampered meaningful comparisons between results produced by different methods/protocols vital for global genomic diagnostics and surveillance. As an exemplar, this study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of five well-established in-silico AMR detection software where the genotype results produced from running a panel of 436 Escherichia coli were compared to their AMR phenotypes, with the latter used as gold-standard. The pipelines exploited previously known geno… Leer más

Nunez-Garcia J., Abuoun M., Storey N., Brouwer MS., Delgado-Blas JF., Mo SS., Ellaby N., Veldman KT., Haenni M., Chatre P., Madec JY., Hammerl JA., Serna-Bernaldo C., Getino M., La Ragione R., Naas T., Telke AA., Glaser A., Sunde M., Gonzalez-Zorn B., Ellington MJ. and Anjum MF.

August 12nd, 2022

The Omicron (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern also affects companion animals

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 9:940710.

     The emergence of the Omicron variant (B.1. 1.529) has brought with it an increase in the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 disease. However, there is hardly any data on its incidence in companion animals. We have detected the presence of this new variant in domestic animals (dogs and cats) living with infected owners in Spain. None of the RT-qPCR positive animals (10.13%) presented any clinical signs and the viral loads detected were low. In addition, the shedding of viral RNA lasted a short period of time in the positive animals. Infection with this variant of concern (VOC) was confirmed by RT-qPCR and sequencing. These outcomes suggest a lower virulence of this variant in infected cats and dogs. They also demonstrate the transmission from infected … Leer más

Sánchez-Morales L., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Perez-Sancho M., Dominguez L. and Barroso-Arevalo S.

July 25th, 2022

Budd-Chiari-like pathology in dolphins

Scientific Reports 12(1):12635.

     Nearly two decades ago, pathologic examination results suggested that acoustic factors, such as mid-frequency active naval military sonar (MFAS) could be the cause of acute decompression-like sickness in stranded beaked whales. Acute systemic gas embolism in these whales was reported together with enigmatic cystic liver lesions (CLL), characterized by intrahepatic encapsulated gas-filled cysts, tentatively interpreted as "gas-bubble" lesions in various other cetacean species. Here we provide a pathologic reinterpretation of CLL in odontocetes. Among 1,200 cetaceans necropsied, CLL were only observed in four striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), with a low prevalence (2%, N = 179). Together, our data strongly suggest that CLL are the res… Leer más

Fernandez A., Jepson PD., Diaz-Delgado J., Bernaldo de Quiros Y., Sierra E., Mompeo B., Vela AI., Di Guardo G., Suarez-Santana C., Espinosa de los Monteros A., Herraez P., Andrada M., Caballero MJ., Rivero M., Consoli F., Castro-Alonso A., Quesada-Canales O. and Arbelo M.

July 18th, 2022

Corynebacterium conjunctivae: A New Corynebacterium Species Isolated from the Ocular Surface of Healthy Horses

Animals 12(14):1827.

     Twenty-two unidentified Gram-positive, rod-shaped organisms were recovered from the conjunctival surface of apparently healthy horses and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Based on cellular morphology and biochemical criteria, the isolates were tentatively assigned to the genus Corynebacterium, although they did not match any recognized species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies demonstrated that all of the isolates were phylogenetically members of the genus Corynebacterium. The isolates shared 99.4 to 100% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity among the strains and 96.5% similarity with Corynebacterium tapiri 2385/12T, which was the closest phylogenetically related species. The DNA G+C content was 58.4 mol%. The major fa… Leer más

Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., LaFrentz S., Casamayor A., Abarca E., Mohammed HH., Cuming RS., Arias CR., Dominguez L. and Vela AI..

July 11st, 2022

Use of Whole-Genome Sequencing to Unravel the Genetic Diversity of a Prevalent Mycobacterium bovis Spoligotype in a Multi-Host Scenario in Spain

Frontiers In Microbiology 13:915843.

     Despite the efforts invested in the eradication of bovine tuberculosis in Spain, herd prevalence has remained constant in the country during the last 15 years (~1.5–1.9%) due to a combination of epidemiological factors impairing disease control, including between-species transmission. Here, our aim was to investigate the molecular diversity of Mycobacterium bovis isolates belonging to the highly prevalent SB0339 spoligotype in the cattle-wildlife interface in different regions of Spain using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Genomic data of 136 M. bovis isolates recovered from different animal species (cattle, wild boar, fallow deer, and red deer) and locations between 2005 and 2018 were analyzed to investigate between- and within-specie… Leer más

Pozo P., Lorente-Leal V., Robbe-Austerman S., Hicks J., Stuber T., Bezos J., de Juan L., Saez-Llorente JL., Romero B., Alvarez J. and on behalf of the Spanish Network on Surveillance Monitoring of Animal Tuberculosis.

July 1st, 2022

Bacteremia and Aortic Valvular Endocarditis in a Eurasian Stone-Curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus distinctus) Due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae

Journal Of Wildlife Diseases 58(3):697-700.

     Burhinus oedicnemus distinctus is an endemic subspecies of Eurasian Stone-curlew present in the Canary Islands. Their populations are rapidly declining, mainly because of anthropogenic impacts. This report describes valvular endocarditis and septicemia in a Eurasian Stone-Curlew with left foot loss and severe contralateral bumblefoot… Leer más

Suarez-Santana C., Fernandez A., Quesada-Canales O., Vela AI., Sarmiento-Navarro J. and Sierra E.

July 1st, 2022

Clonal and plasmid-mediated flow of ESBL/AmpC genes in Escherichia coli in a commercial laying hen farm

Veterinary Microbiology 270:109453.

     Resistance to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins in Escherichia coli is mainly due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC cephalosporinases, which have been increasingly reported, mainly in isolates from humans and poultry.
The aim of this study was to address the flow of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the full laying hen production cycle (four batches followed from day-old chicks to 83/84-week-old layers), using cephalosporin-resistant E. coli as a model and their characterization using whole genome sequencing (WGS).
Fifteen out of 22 samples analysed yielded growth on MacConkey agar with cefotaxime (1 mg/L). Of these, 141 isolates were identified as E. coli and 47 were characterized by WGS.Leer más

Aldea-Ramos I., Gibello A., Hernandez M., Leekitcharoenphon P., Bortolaia V. and Moreno MA.

July 1st, 2022

Factors affecting the performance of P22 ELISA for the diagnosis of caprine tuberculosis in milk samples

Research In Veterinary Science 145:40-45.

     Caprine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonosis caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Caprine TB eradication programmes are based mainly on intradermal tuberculin tests and slaughterhouse surveillance. However, the use of serological test has been extended as a potential diagnostic tool in goats through the use of serum, plasma, or even milk samples. Milk production and the antibodies (Ab) present in milk can vary depending on several circumstances. In the present study, different factors that may affect the performance of humoral TB diagnosis were analysed using goat milk samples: 1) lactation stage, 2) a recent previous skin test (booster effect) and 3) the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on milk samples preserved with … Leer más

Ortega J., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Roy A., de Juan L., Romero B., Moreno I., Dominguez M., Dominguez L. and Bezos J..

July 1st, 2022

Large-scale study on virological and serological prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in cats and dogs in Spain

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 69(4):e759-e774.

     The disease produced by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently one of the primary concerns worldwide. Knowing the zoonotic origin of the disease and that several animal species, including dogs and cats, are susceptible to viral infection, it is critical to assess the relevance of pets in this pandemic. Here, we performed a large-scale study on SARS-CoV-2 serological and viral prevalence in cats and dogs in Spain in order to elucidate their role and susceptibility. Samples from animals in contact with COVID-19 positive people and/or compatible symptoms (n = 492), as well as from random animals (n = 1024), were taken. Despite the large number of animals analyzed, only 12 animals (eight dogs and … Leer más

Barroso-Arevalo S., Barneto A., Ramos AM., Rivera B., Sanchez R., Sánchez-Morales L., Perez-Sancho M., Buendia A., Ferreras E., Ortiz-Menendez JC., Moreno I., Serres C., Vela C., Risalde MA., Dominguez L. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

July 1st, 2022

Benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic approach for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 69(4):e859-e870.

     Even though enormous efforts and control strategies have been implemented, bovine tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant source of health and socioeconomic concern. The standard method used in TB eradication programs for in vivo detection is the tuberculin skin test. However, the specificity of the tuberculin skin test is affected by infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria or by vaccination. Thus, some animals are not correctly diagnosed. This study aimed firstly to identify a plasma metabolic TB profile by high-field (HF) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and secondly measure this characteristic TB metabolic profile using low-field benchtop (LF) NMR as an affordable molecular technology for TB diagnosis. Plasma samples fr… Leer más

Ruiz-Cabello J., Sevilla AI., Olaizola E., Bezos J., Miguel-Coello AB., Munoz-Mendoza M., Beraza M., Garrido JM. and Izquierdo-Garcia JL.

June 24th, 2022

Identifying high-risk areas for dog-mediated rabies using Bayesian spatial regression

One Health 15:100411.

     Despite ongoing control efforts, rabies remains an endemic zoonotic disease in many countries. Determining high-risk areas and the space-time patterns of rabies spread, as it relates to epidemiologically important factors, can support policymakers and program managers alike to develop evidence-based targeted surveillance and control programs. In this One Health approach which selected Thailand as the example site, the location-based risk of contracting dog-mediated rabies by both human and animal populations was quantified using a Bayesian spatial regression model. Specifically, a conditional autoregressive (CAR) Bayesian zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression was fitted to the reported human and animal rabies case counts of each district, … Leer más

Kanankege K., Errecaborde KM., Wiratsudakul A., Wongnak P., Yoopatthanawong C., Thanapongtharm W., Alvarez J. and Perez A.

June 21st, 2022

Environment and Offspring Surveillance in Porcine Brucellosis

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 9:915692.

     Porcine brucellosis, caused by Brucella suis (B. suis), is a notifiable disease causing significant economic losses in production systems. Most infected pigs may act as carriers and shed B. suis even if asymptomatic. This can contribute to environmental persistence, thus hindering control efforts. Here, the environment and the offspring were investigated during and after a B. suis outbreak at a sow breeding farm. The diagnosis of B. suis in sows (n = 1,140) was performed by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from vaginal swabs, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) from sera, and brucellin skin test (BST). B. suis diagnosis in post-weaning pigs (n = 899) was performed by I-ELISA in sera and BST. The environmental sur… Leer más

Rebollada A., Perez-Sancho M., Rodriguez-Bertos A., Garcia N., Martinez I., Navarro A., Dominguez L. and Garcia-Seco T..

June 13rd, 2022

Feline Gastrointestinal Eosinophilic Sclerosing Fibroplasia-Extracellular Matrix Proteins and TGF-β1 Immunoexpression

Veterinary Sciences 9(6):291.

     Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia (FGESF) has been described as an inflammatory disorder with an eosinophilic component with etiopathogenesis that is still unknown. Sixteen intestinal samples from two veterinary diagnostic services (2014–2017) were included in the study. A histopathological criterion classified the cases into three grades (mild, moderate, and severe) according to the distribution of the lesions and the course. An immunohistochemical study of collagen I, collagen III, fibronectin, and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) was performed in each case. An immunohistochemical study of mild grades shows greater collagen III immunoexpression, compared to collagen I and fibronectin, which sugges… Leer más

Porras N., Rebollada A., Rodriguez-Franco F., Calvo-Ibbitson A. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

June 1st, 2022

Zoonotic Transmission of Diphtheria from Domestic Animal Reservoir, Spain

Emerging Infectious Diseases 28(6):1257-1260.

     Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans is as an emerging zoonotic agent of diphtheria. We describe the zoonotic transmission of diphtheria caused by toxigenic C. ulcerans from domestic animals in Spain, confirmed by core-genome multilocus sequence typing. Alongside an increasing number of recent publications, our findings highlight the public health threat posed by diphtheria reemergence.
Diphtheria has been increasing in relevance because of increasing individual travel and surges in mass relocation events of refugees, asylum seekers, and immigrants from countries where diphtheria remains endemic (1–3). These importation events, in combination with growing vaccine hesitancy in nonendemic countries, give diphtheria a high potential for r… Leer más

Hoefer A., Herrera-Leon S., Dominguez L., Ordovas-Gavin M., Romero B., Araujo-Piedra XB., Sobrino-Calzada C., Uria-Gonzalez MJ., Herrera-Leon L. and Case Study Investigation Group.

June 1st, 2022

Potential for improved detection of bovine tuberculosis by targeting combined blood biomarkers in multi-test algorithms

Veterinary Immunology And Immunopathology 248:110419.

     Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control programs can be improved by combined use of tests for humoral and cell-mediated immune responses targeting multiple biomarkers of Mycobacterium bovis. To further the diagnostic benefits of this approach, we used Dual Path Platform (DPP) technology to test sera from cattle with naturally acquired bTB in the United States (US) and Spain for the presence of M. bovis antigen, IgM and/or IgG antibodies to MPB70/MPB83 fusion antigen in conjunction with tuberculin skin tests (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA). When TST was complemented with detection of IgM and IgG antibodies, the diagnostic sensitivity increased from 85.4% to 95.1% in the US and from 64.2% to 81.5% in Spain. Likewise, adding the DPP … Leer más

Sridhara AA., Johnathan-Lee A., Elahi R., Sikar-Gang A., Lambotte P., Esfandiari J., de Juan L., Gortazar C., Marpe BN., Thacker TC., Palmer MV., Waters WR. and Lyashchenko K.

June 1st, 2022

Molecular detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in bovine samples: a novel real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting EF1-alpha-Tf1 and a comparative study of published PCR techniques

Parasitology Research 121(6):1725-1733.

     The parasite T. foetus causes trichomonosis in cattle but is generally asymptomatic in males. Thus, many bulls carrying the disease go unnoticed, making the detection of T. foetus in bulls an important aspect for its control. Due to drawbacks posed by its cultivation, PCR is a preferred option for diagnostic laboratories. Most published PCR protocols target the genomic region compring the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes and internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (rRNA-ITS region), homologous to that of other Tritrichomonas species. There is minimal information on alternative genetic targets and no comparative studies have been published. We compared a protocol based on the microsatellite TfRE (called H94) and five protocols based on the rRNA-IT… Leer más

Polo C., Garcia-Seco T., Fernandez V., Hernandez M., Briones V., Diez-Guerrier A., Dominguez L. and Perez-Sancho M..

June 1st, 2022

Permeability of artificial barriers (fences) for wild boar Sus scrofa in Mediterranean mixed landscapes

Pest Management Science 78(6):2277-2286.

     Background: Fences are one of the most widespread manmade features in nature, constituting an artificial limitation to the movement of wildlife. To date, their effects on wildlife behaviour have been understudied but this knowledge is required to design effective management procedures. Using 21 GPS-monitored wild boar, we evaluated the permeability of different types of fences and described temporal patterns and spatial hotspots for crossing events. A fence`s permeability was inferred by the crossing success, i.e., the number of times that animals crossed a barrier vs the number of times they did not cross. The vulnerability of fences at watercourses was explored by assessing whether the frequency of crossings was higher around watercourse … Leer más

Laguna E., Barasona JA., Carpio AJ., Vicente J. and Acevedo P.

May 10th, 2022

Global Distribution of Extended Spectrum Cephalosporin and Carbapenem Resistance and Associated Resistance Markers in Escherichia coli of Swine Origin - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Frontiers In Microbiology 13:853810.

     Third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems are considered critically important antimicrobials in human medicine. Food animals such as swine can act as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes/bacteria resistant to these antimicrobial classes, and potential dissemination of AMR genes or resistant bacteria from pigs to humans is an ongoing public health threat. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to: (1) estimate global proportion and animal-level prevalence of swine E. coli phenotypically resistant to third generation cephalosporins (3GCs) and carbapenems at a country level; and (2) measure abundances and global distribution of the genetic mechanisms that confer resistance to these antimicrobial cla… Leer más

Singh-Hayer S., Casanova-Higes A., Paladino E., Elnekave E., Nault A., Johnson T., Bender J., Perez A. and Alvarez J..

May 1st, 2022

A survey of shared pathogens at the domestic-wild ruminants interface in Doñana National Park (Spain)

Transboundary And Emerging Diseases 69(3):1568-1576.

     A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate shared pathogens that can be transmitted by close or non-close contact at the domestic-wild ruminants` interface. During summer-autumn 2015, a total of 138 cattle and 203 wild ruminants (red deer, Cervus elaphus, and fallow deer, Dama dama) were sampled in Doñana National Park (DNP, south-western Spain), a Mediterranean ecosystem well known for the interaction network occurring in the ungulate host community. Pestiviruses, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV; Bovine orthopneumovirus), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1; Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) were assessed using serological, microbiological and molecular techniques. The overall seroprevalence… Leer más

Jiménez-Ruiz S., Garcia-Bocanegra I., Acevedo P., Espunyes J., Triguero-Ocana R., Cano-Terriza D., Torres-Sanchez MJ., Vicente J. and Risalde MA.

April 27th, 2022

The role of the wild boar spreading African swine fever virus in Asia: another underestimated problem

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 9:844209.

     African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal infectious disease in naïve populations of domestic pigs and wild boar. In Asia, from the first outbreak in August 2018 until the end of November 2021, ASF has been reported in Asian countries. The ASF virus (ASFV) circulation in domestic pigs is considered the main problem in Asia. On the other hand, there are very few reports of ASF in wild boar. However, considering the high wild boar density within the same area of backyard domestic pig farms in Asia, the occurrence of ASFV infection in wild boar may be underestimated. The role of the wild boar in other ASF epidemiological scenarios, such as Europe, is key for the maintenance and transmission of the disease. Hence, we performed a preliminary … Leer más

Cadenas-Fernández E., Ito S., Aguilar-Vega C., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM. and Bosch J.

April 23rd, 2022

Garvicins AG1 and AG2: Two Novel Class IId Bacteriocins of Lactococcus garvieae Lg-Granada

International Journal Of Molecualr Sciences 23(9):4685.

     Lactococcus garvieae causes infectious diseases in animals and is considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen involved in human clinical conditions. In silico analysis of plasmid pLG50 of L. garvieae Lg-Granada, an isolate from a patient with endocarditis, revealed the presence of two gene clusters (orf46-47 and orf48-49), each one encoding a novel putative bacteriocin, i.e., garvicin AG1 (GarAG1; orf46) and garvicin AG2 (GarAG2; orf48), and their corresponding immunity proteins (orf47 and orf49). The chemically synthesised bacteriocins GarAG1 and GarAG2 presented inhibitory activity against pathogenic L. garvieae strains, with AG2 also being active against Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Enterococcus faecalis. Genetic organisati… Leer más

Maldonado-Barragan A., Alegria-Carrasco E., Blanco MM., Vela AI., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Rodriguez JM. and Gibello A.

April 22nd, 2022

Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Streptococcus iniae Virulence Factors in Adriatic Sturgeon ( Acipenser naccarii)

Microorganisms 10(5):883.

     The first case of infection of Streptococcus iniae in Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) was recently reported in a raceway system located in Northern Italy. A second episode of infection in sturgeons with absence of mortality and evident clinical signs, was registered in November 2020 in the same farm and is reported in this study. Histopathological changes observed in infected organs are described. The strains isolated in the two episodes were compared using molecular analysis based on PCR, phylogeny and virulence factors analysis. Not all the major virulence factors were detected for the two strains; in particular the strains 78697, isolated in November, lacks cpsD, compared to the strains 64844, isolated in September. Moreover, gene… Leer más

Colussi S., Pastorino P., Mugetti D., Antuofermo E., Sciuto S., Esposito G., Polinas M., Tomasoni M., Burrai GP., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Acutis PL., Pedron C. and Prearo M.

April 18th, 2022

Nonspecific protection of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis against Salmonella Choleraesuis infection in pigs

Veterinary Research 53(1):31.

     Trained immunity is the capacity of innate immune cells to produce an improved response against a secondary infection after a previous unrelated infection. Salmonellosis represents a public health issue and affects the pig farming industry. In general, vaccination against salmonellosis is still facing problems regarding the control of distinct serovars. Therefore, we hypothesized that an immunostimulant based on heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (HIMB) could have an immune training effect in pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) and decided to explore the amplitude of this non-specific immune response. For this purpose, twenty-four 10 days-old female piglets were randomly separated in three group… Leer más

Vaz-Rodrigues R., Ferreras-Colino E., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Pesciarioli M., Thomas J., Garcia-Seco T., Sevilla IA., Perez-Sancho M., Mateo R., Dominguez L., Gortazar C. and Risalde MA.

April 1st, 2022

First Detection of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) Variant of Concern in a Symptomatic Cat in Spain

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 9:841430.

     Natural and experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets has been widely evidenced since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Among the numerous affected animals, cats are one of the most susceptible species. However, little is known about viral pathogenicity and transmissibility in the case of variants of concern (VOCs) in animal hosts, such as the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant first detected in India. Here, we have identified the B.1.617.2 (Delta) VOC in a cat living with a COVID-19 positive owner. The animal presented mild symptoms (sneezing) and a high viral load was detected in the oropharyngeal swab, suggesting that an active infection was occurring in the upper respiratory tract of the cat. Transmission from the owner to the cat occurred… Leer más

Barroso-Arevalo S., Sánchez-Morales L., Perez-Sancho M., Dominguez L. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

March 31st, 2022

Bcl-2 Immunoexpression in Feline Epitheliotropic Intestinal T-Cell Lymphomas

Veterinary Sciences 9(4):168.

     Abstract: Lymphoma is the most common malignant hematopoietic neoplasm in domestic felines. Twenty-two cases of feline epitheliotropic duodenal T-cell lymphoma were characterized morphologically and immunohistochemically (CD3, Pax5, Ki-67), and Bcl-2 immunoexpression was established. Most cases were in domestic shorthair cats (88.2%), with a mean age of 11.2 years. All lymphomas were CD3+, with a low-to-moderate expression of Ki-67 (< 30%). A correlation between the tumoral pattern of infiltration in the lamina propria and the intraepithelial distribution of the neoplastic lymphocytes was established (p = 0.0155). Intraepithelial nests of neoplastic lymphocytes were predominantly observed in lymphomas with a patchy distribution in the lamin… Leer más

Rebollada A., Porras N., Calvo-Ibbitson A., Rodriguez-Franco F. and Rodriguez-Bertos A..

March 29th, 2022

The Evolution of African Swine Fever in China: A Global Threat?

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 9:828498.

     African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most critical diseases in the pig industry. In Asia, 15 countries have already reported an outbreak as of November 22, 2021. In 2021, China reported the genotype II lower virulent ASF virus (ASFV) and the emergence of genotype I ASFV. ASF is generally known as a contagious and lethal disease, but if chronic infection spreads, then disease control would be more difficult. In the current study, we highlighted the possibility of lower virulent virus distribution throughout China and the subsequent general risk of the virus being released from the country. The kernel density estimation showed that the two highest kernel density areas of ASF notification were located in Northeast and Midwest China. Four of… Leer más

Ito S., Bosch J., Martinez-Aviles M. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

March 18th, 2022

Taylorella asinigenitalis: raising awareness of its importance and presence in equine and asinine populations

The Veterinary Record 190(6):e1602.

     Taylorella equigenitalis has long been recognised as a causative agent of contagious equine metritis, but practitioners may be less familiar with Taylorella asinigenitalis, which has been identified more recently. Here, Abel Dorrego, Consuelo Serres and Fatima Cruz-Lopez of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid describe T asinigenitalis and report the findings of a survey they carried out in donkeys in Spain… Leer más

Dorrego-Rodriguez A., Serres C. and Cruz F..

March 17th, 2022

Longitudinal study of the mcr-1 gene prevalence in Spanish food-producing pigs from 1998 to 2021 and its relationship with the use of polymyxins

Porcine Health Management 8(1):12.

Resistance to colistin was an uncommon phenomenon traditionally linked to chromosome point mutations, but since the first description of a plasmid-mediated colistin-resistance in late 2015, transmissible resistance to colistin has become a Public Health concern. Despite colistin is considered as a human last resort antibiotic, it has been commonly used in swine industry to treat post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. However, the progressively increase of colistin resistance during the last decade led to the Spanish Medicines and Healthcare Products Agency (AEMPS) to launch a strategic and voluntary plan aimed to reduce colistin consumption in pig production. Our longitudinal study (1998-2021) aimed to evaluate the trend of co… Leer más

Miguela-Villoldo P., Moreno MA., Rodriguez-Lazaro D., Gallardo A., Hernandez M., Serrano T., Saez-Llorente JL., De Frutos C., Aguero M., Quesada A., Dominguez L. and Ugarte-Ruiz M..

March 9th, 2022

Global Distribution of Fluoroquinolone and Colistin Resistance and Associated Resistance Markers in Escherichia coli of Swine Origin - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Frontiers In Microbiology 13:834793.

     Background: Fluoroquinolones and polymyxins (colistin) are considered as critical drugs for human medicine. Antimicrobials of these classes are also used in swine production worldwide and this usage can contribute to selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which is a threat to both human and animal health. Given the dynamic epidemiology of AMR, updating our knowledge regarding distribution and trends in the proportion of resistant bacteria is of critical importance.
Objectives: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to describe the global prevalence of phenotypic and genotypic resistance to fluoroquinolones and colistin in Escherichia coli collected from swine.
Results: Four databases (PubMed, PubAg, Web … Leer más

Singh-Hayer S., Casanova-Higes A., Paladino E., Elnekave E., Nault A., Johnson T., Bender J., Perez A. and Alvarez J..

March 1st, 2022

Genomic characterization of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serovar Kentucky ST198 isolated in poultry flocks in Spain (2011-2017)

Microbial Genomics 8(3):000773.

     Salmonella Kentucky is commonly found in poultry and rarely associated with human disease. However, a multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. Kentucky clone [sequence type (ST)198] has been increasingly reported globally in humans and animals. Our aim here was to assess if the recently reported increase of S. Kentucky in poultry in Spain was associated with the ST198 clone and to characterize this MDR clone and its distribution in Spain. Sixty-six isolates retrieved from turkey, laying hen and broiler in 2011-2017 were subjected to whole-genome sequencing to assess their sequence type, genetic relatedness, and presence of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), plasmid replicons and virulence factors. Thirteen strains were further analysed using long-r… Leer más

Samper-Cativiela C., Bernabé Diéguez B., Trigo de Roza F., Ugarte-Ruiz M., Elnekave E., Lim S., Hernandez M., Abad D., Collado S., Saez-Llorente JL., De Frutos C., Aguero M., Moreno MA., Escudero JA. and Alvarez J..

March 1st, 2022

Splicing predictions, minigene analyses and ACMG/AMP clinical classification of 42 germline PALB2 splice-site variants

Journal Of Pathology 256(3):321-334.

     PALB2 loss-of-function variants confer high risk of developing breast cancer. Here, we present a systematic functional analysis of PALB2 splice-site variants detected in ~113,000 women of the large-scale sequencing project BRIDGES (Breast Cancer After Diagnostic Gene Sequencing; https://bridges-research.eu/). Eighty-two PALB2 variants at the intron-exon boundaries were analyzed with MaxEntScan. Forty-two variants were selected for the subsequent splicing functional assays. For this purpose, three splicing reporter minigenes comprising exons 1-12 were constructed. The 42 potential spliceogenic variants were introduced into the minigenes by site-directed mutagenesis and assayed in MCF-7/MDA-MB-231 cells. Splicing anomalies were observed in 35… Leer más

Valenzuela-Palomo A., Bueno-Martinez E., Sanoguera-Miralles L., Lorca V., Fraile-Bethencourt E., Esteban-Sanchez A., Gomez S., Carvalho J., Allen J., Garcia-Alvarez A., Perez-Segura P., Dorling L., Easton DF., Devilee P., Vreeswijk MPG., de la Hoya M. and Velasco EA.

February 28th, 2022

First Case of Brevetoxicosis Linked to Rough-Toothed Dolphin (Steno bredanensis) Mass-Mortality Event in Eastern Central Atlantic Ocean: A Climate Change Effect?

Frontiers In Marine Science 9:9834051.

     Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been increasingly recorded over the last decades and much work has linked these events to multiple oceanographic and climate disturbances. HABs can affect ecosystems either as events that affect dissolved oxygen, clog fish gills, or smother corals or through the production of biotoxins which affect living marine resources through food web transfers or aerosols. HAB represent a natural driver of decline and potential extinction of aquatic organisms, from invertebrates to mammals, which may offer little evolutionary adaptation particularly in very high and long-lasting exposures. Despite numerous multispecies mass-mortality events linked to HAB-associated biotoxicosis globally, there are no records in cetacean… Leer más

Fernandez A., Sierra E., Arbelo M., Gago-Martinez A., Leao-Martins JM., Garcia-Alvarez N., Bernaldo de Quiros Y., Arregui M., Vela AI. and Diaz-Delgado J.

February 22nd, 2022

Dissemination Routes of Carbapenem and Pan-Aminoglycoside Resistance Mechanisms in Hospital and Urban Wastewater Canalizations of Ghana

MSystems 7(1):e0101921.

     Wastewater has a major role in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) dynamics and public health. The impact on AMR of wastewater flux at the community-hospital interface in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is poorly understood. Therefore, the present study analyzed the epidemiological scenario of resistance genes, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and bacterial populations in wastewater around the Tamale metropolitan area (Ghana). Wastewater samples were collected from the drainage and canalizations before and after three hospitals and one urban waste treatment plant (UWTP). From all carbapenem/pan-aminoglycoside-resistant bacteria, 36 isolates were selected to determine bacterial species and phenotypical resistance profiles. Nanopore sequen… Leer más

Delgado-Blas JF., Valenzuela-Agüi C., Marin-Rodriguez E., Serna-Bernaldo C., Montero N., Setsoafia-Saba CK. and Gonzalez-Zorn B..

February 11st, 2022

Nocardiosis in Free-Ranging Cetaceans from the Central-Eastern Atlantic Ocean and Contiguous Mediterranean Sea

Animals 12(4):434.

     We report the pathologic features of nocardiosis in five free-ranging delphinids from the Canary Islands and Andalusia, namely four striped dolphins (Stenella coerulealba) and one bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). All animals had a multiorgan (disseminated) pattern of infection involving suppurative to pyogranulomatous and thromboembolic lesions in two or more organs. Most affected organs were (by decreasing order) lung, pulmonary lymph nodes, liver, kidney, adrenal glands, and central nervous system. Typical intralesional and intravascular branched and filamentous bacteria were highlighted by Grocott’s methenamine silver and Gram stains. Bacterial analysis including 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified Nocardia farcinica in two strip… Leer más

Diaz-Santana P., Fernandez A., Diaz-Delgado J., Vela AI., Dominguez L., Suarez-Santana C., Puig-Lozano R., Fernandez-Maldonado C., Sierra E. and Arbelo M.

February 1st, 2022

Comparative genomics and evolutionary analysis of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from human endocarditis

Microbial Genomics 8(2):000771.

     Lactococcus garvieae is a well-known pathogen of fish, but is rarely involved in infections in humans and other mammals. In humans, the main clinical manifestation of L. garvieae infections is endocarditis usually related to the ingestion of contaminated food, such as undercooked fish and shellfish. This study presents the first complete genomic sequence of a clinical L. garvieae strain isolated from a patient with endocarditis and its comparative analysis with other genomes. This human isolate contains a circular chromosome of 2 099 060 bp and one plasmid of 50 557 bp. In comparison with other fully sequenced L. garvieae strains, the chromosomal DNA of L. garvieae Lg-Granada carries a low proportion of insertion sequence elements and a hig… Leer más

Frances-Cuesta C., Ansari I., Fernandez-Garayzabal JF., Gibello A. and Gonzalez-Candelas F.

January 29th, 2022

Outbreak of acute highly lethal phlegmon in the pharynx, associated with a new Pasteurella multocida MLST type ST63, in a limousine herd

Veterinary Record Case Reports 10(2):e274.

     We report an outbreak of pharyngeal inflammation in an extensive limousine herd, in central Spain, associated with a novel genotype (ST63) of Pasteurella multocida capsular serogroup B (capB). The outbreak affected cattle of all ages, reaching death rate of 17.6% and case fatality rate 93.3%. Affected animals showed throat inflammation, respiratory distress and finally death, without characteristics of depression or haemorrhagic septicaemia in an acute course. Postmortem examination only revealed inflammation including oedema in the pharynx and surrounding tissues. None of the necropsied animals was septicaemic and none showed multisystem petechial haemorrhages, pneumonia or enteritis characteristics of haemorrhagic septicaemia. P. multocid… Leer más

Gonzalez-Martin JV., Perez-Villalobos N., Patron-Collantes R., Gonzalez-Fernandez J. and Vela AI..

January 28th, 2022

MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry as a Rapid Screening Alternative for Non-tuberculous Mycobacterial Species Identification in the Veterinary Laboratory

Frontiers In Veterinary Science 9:827702.

     Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are difficult to identify by biochemical and genetic methods due to their microbiological properties and complex taxonomy. The development of more efficient and rapid methods for species identification in the veterinary microbiological laboratory is, therefore, of great importance. Although MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry (MS) has become a promising tool for the identification of NTM species in human clinical practise, information regarding its performance on veterinary isolates is scarce. This study assesses the capacity of MALDI-TOF MS to identify NTM isolates (n = 75) obtained from different animal species. MALDI-TOF MS identified 76.0% (n = 57) and 4% (n = 3) of the isolates with high and low confidence, r… Leer más

Lorente-Leal V., Liandris E., Bezos J., Perez-Sancho M., Romero B. and de Juan L..

January 27th, 2022

Effect of the topical administration of corticosteroids and tuberculin pre-sensitisation on the diagnosis of tuberculosis in goats

BMC Veterinary Research 18(1):58.

     Background: Caprine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonosis caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Caprine TB control and eradication programmes have traditionally been based on intradermal tuberculin tests and slaughterhouse surveillance. However, this strategy has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Different factors may affect the performance of the TB diagnostic tests used in goats and, subsequently, the detection of TB-infected animals. In the present study, the effect of two of the factors that may affect the performance of the techniques used to diagnose TB in goats, the topical administration of corticosteroids and a recent pre-sensitisation with tuberculin, was analysed.
Methods: The ani… Leer más

Ortega J., Roy A., Díaz-Castillo A., de Juan L., Romero B., Saez-Llorente JL., Dominguez L., Regal P., Infantes-Lorenzo JA., Alvarez J. and Bezos J..

January 23rd, 2022

African Swine Fever Survey in a European Context

Pathogens 11(2):137.

     African swine fever (ASF) is currently the most threatening disease for domestic and wild pigs worldwide. Wild boar has been the main affected species in all EU countries except for Romania, where most notifications occur in domestic pigs. The spread of ASF in wild boar is challenging to control; risk factors are harder to identify and establish than in domestic pigs, which, together with an underestimation of the disease and the lack of treatment or an effective vaccine, are hindering control and eradication efforts. We distributed two online questionnaires, one for domestic pigs and one for wild boar, to experts of different background and countries in Europe, to explore risk factors in relation to ASF control connected to farming, huntin… Leer más

de la Torre A., Bosch J., Sanchez-Vizcaino JM., Ito S., Munoz-Perez C., Iglesias-Martin I. and Martinez-Aviles M.

January 8th, 2022

Quantitative Risk Assessment of African Swine Fever Introduction into Spain by Legal Import of Live Pigs

Pathogens 11(1):76.

     African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating infectious disease of pigs that is threatening the global swine industry at present. The current spread of ASF in Europe and its recent incursion into Germany pose a serious risk to Spain, one of the world’s leading pig producers. A quantitative stochastic risk assessment model was developed to estimate the probability of ASF introduction into Spain via the legal import of live pigs. The results suggest a low annual probability of ASF introduction into Spain (1.07 × 10−4), the highest risk being concentrated in Central European countries (Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg) during the months of April and February. The methods and results presented herein could contribute to imp… Leer más

Munoz-Perez C., Bosch BJ., Ito S., Martinez-Aviles M. and Sanchez-Vizcaino JM..

January 1st, 2022

Trans-species transmission of Brucellae among ruminants hampering brucellosis control efforts in Egypt

Journal Of Applied Microbiology 132(1):90-100.

     This study aimed to identify the genotypic fingerprinting of B. melitensis biovar 3 isolates from ruminants in Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt, to compare with other peers globally, and to highlight the epidemiology and potential causes of brucellosis control failure.

A multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA 16) was carried out on 41 B. melitensis bv3 isolates, 31 from the preferential hosts (28 sheep and three goats), and ten from atypical hosts (nine cattle and one buffalo), identified by bacteriological and molecular techniques. MLVA-16 analysis revealed 19 genotypes with nine as singletons. The most prevalent genotypes were M3_K.E (3,5,3,13,1,1,3,3,7,43,8,7,6,7,5,3), M13_K.E (3,5,3,13,1,1,3,3,7,43,8,5,8,7,7,3), and… Leer más

Hegazy Y., Abdel-Hamid N., Eldahiey M., Oreiby A., Algaabary M., Hamdy M., Beleta E., Martinez I., Shahein M., Garcia N. and Eltholth M.

Science Publication
ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 250 SUAT 61 SUAT 15
2 ICM 237 ZTA 53 MYC 11
3 MYC 227 MYC 48 SAP 11
4 SUAT 219 ICM 40 ZTA 6
5 NED 75 SAP 31 ICM 4
  VISAVET 1124 315 55

Impact Factor Average
Total Last 60 mo. Last 12 mo.
1 ZTA 3.907 ZTA 5.359 ZTA 6.183
2 SAP 3.818 SUAT 4.227 SAP 6.06
3 SUAT 2.987 SAP 4.095 NED 4.3
4 MYC 2.8 NED 3.858 SUAT 4.287
5 DICM 2.776 ICM 3.798 MYC 3.118
VISAVET 3.284 4.885 6.794

ISI Scientific Publications
Total Last 60 mo.
1 Transbound Emerg Dis 93 Front Vet Sci 35
2 Vet Microbiol 88 Transbound Emerg Dis 32
3 Prev Vet Med 77 Animals 15
4 Front Vet Sci 61 Res Vet Sci 14
5 PLoS ONE 56 Sci Rep 14
  All journals 354   All journals 39